Madeleine

Madeleine

[mad-l-in, mad-l-eyn; Fr. maduh-len]
Albright, Madeleine, 1937-, American government official, b. Prague, Czechoslovakia, as Maria Jana Körbel. Her family emigrated to the United States in 1948, and she attended Wellesley College (B.A., 1959) and Columbia Univ. (M.A., 1968; Ph.D., 1976). A lifelong Democrat, she was chief legislative assistant to Senator Edmund Muskie (1976-78) and served on the staff of the National Security Council and the White House (1978-81). When the Democrats lost the White House, Albright became a professor of international affairs at Georgetown Univ. (1982-93); her Washington, D.C., home was an informal meeting place for prominent Democrats and international leaders. Albright was an adviser to Bill Clinton (1992), and the newly elected president appointed her U.S. ambassador to the United Nations in 1993. A forceful promoter of American interests, she encouraged increased U.S. participation in the United Nations, often in military actions. In 1997, President Clinton named her secretary of state; serving during his second term, she was the first woman to hold the post. Upholding the administration's "assertive multilateralism," Albright was a strong supporter of an expanded NATO and an advocate of an active U.S. foreign policy, including the use of U.S. forces to protect American interests and prevent genocide in foreign countries.

See her memoir, Madam Secretary (2003); biographies by A. Blackman (1998) and M. Dobbs (1999).

Vionnet, Madeleine, 1876-1975, French fashion designer. She worked for Parisian and London dressmakers and designed for the Callot Soeurs and Jacques Doucet houses before opening her own studio in 1912. In the 1920s she created a fashion revolution by introducing the bias cut, a technique that enables fabric to cling softly to the body while moving with it. Eschewing corsets and other constricting undergarments, Vionnet dominated haute couture in the 1930s with sensually draped garments that were inspired by Greek, Roman, and medieval styles but brought suavely and sexily up-to-date. Characteristic Vionnet styles include the handkerchief dress, cowl neck, and halter top. By 1940 she had retired, but her bias cut and her urbanely sensual approach to couture has been a strong and pervasive influence on contemporary fashion designers. The Vionnet line was revived in 1988.

See biography by B. Kirke (1991, repr. 1998); studies by J. Demornex (1991 and 1996).

Madeleine [Fr.,=Magdalen, i.e., Mary Magdalen], large church of Paris, in the Place de la Madeleine. It was originally planned by J. A. Gabriel as a part of his layout for the Place de la Concorde, the location being selected so as to close the vista of the Rue Royale. The building was begun in 1764, but construction was halted by the French Revolution. Napoleon I selected Barthélemy Vignon to convert the structure into a Temple of Glory. Vignon worked on the Madeleine from 1807 until his death in 1828, and his successor, J. J. M. Huvé, completed it in 1842. After the Bourbon restoration the building became a church again. Externally it is a peripteral temple (surrounded by one row of columns) of the Roman Corinthian order, with its columns (63 ft/19 m high) surpassing the height of all those of the ancient Greek or Roman temples. The interior contains a vestibule, a nave of three bays covered by domes on pendentives, and a semicircular apse.
Cap-de-la-Madeleine is a former city in Quebec, Canada at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice River and the St. Lawrence River. It was amalgamated into the City of Trois-Rivières in 2002. Population (2001 census) 32,534.

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