(మచిలిపట్నం) is a city and a special grade municipality
in Krishna district
in the Indian state
of Andhra Pradesh
. The town existed since 3rd century BCE (Satavahana
period) when it was known as 'Maisolos' (Ptolemy
) and as 'Masalia' in (Periplus
) Flourishing sea trade was carried out from the Masula port. The port is located on the southeastern or Coromandel Coast
. Situated in the mouth of the river Krishna
at the Bay of Bengal
, Machilipatnam is the administrative centre of Krishna District
in the state
of Andhra Pradesh
. It was a 17th century port for French
trade. It has a medium-size fishing harbour which can accommodate 350 fishing vessels and an active carpet-weaving industry. The other products from the town include rice
, oilseeds and scientific instruments. This town is a railway
terminus and an important educational centre.
The city is also well-known for its sweet dish called Bandar Laddu
The Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam is most vulnerable to high surges of the sea due to cyclones. Andhra Cyclone of 14-20 November, 1977 that crossed the coast near Nizampatnam took a toll of about 10,000 lives. As the storm approached the coast, gale winds reaching 200 km/h lashed Prakasam, Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari and West Godavari districts. Storm surge, 5 meters high, inundated Krishna estuary and the coast south of Machilipatnam. The 2004 Tsunami affected many fishing villages around Machilipatnam. The Government and the NGOs are involved in rebuilding and reconstruction of the devastated villages.
Machilipatnam was a flourishing seaport on the east coast during the time of the Satavahanas. It was mentioned in Periplus that a great quantity of muslins are made in Masalia. The word 'muslin' originated from the name 'Masalia'. In the 17th century CE, the port was a centre of French, British and Dutch trade. It is one of the earliest known British settlements in the Indian subcontinent, its importance being due to the fact that it was the major port of Golconda kingdom. It was the British East India Company's first trading post on the Coromandel coast. An agency was established there in 1611 CE. During the wars of the Carnatic, the English were temporarily expelled from the town, which was held by the French for some years. In 1759 CE the town and fort were captured by Colonel Forde, an achievement followed by the acquisition of the Northern Circars (q.v.). In 1864 a great storm-wave swept over the entire town and is said to have destroyed 30,000 lives.A Monument has been erected in memory of their souls by the then Collector of Masulipatam Mr.Thornhill almost 3km away from the unindated town.It was called Robertson square,now a days familiar as Koneru centre in local language.
The port is only a roadstead, where vessels anchor 5 m. out. A branch line from Vijayawada on the Southern Mahratta railway was opened in 1908. The port of Machilipatnam today is in desperate need for modernization. It has not seen any ships in the last decade. In its heyday, the port used to handle export of different items weighing more than 2.7 lakh tonnes and imports of 37,000 tonnes. It used to export Iron Ore to Japan. In January 2006, Government of Andhra Pradesh revealed plans for reviving the Machilipatnam port at a cost of Rs. 1200 crores. It has allocated 6000 acres (24 km²) of land for the project.
'Masulipatnam and Cambay', a book by Sinnappah Arasaratnam and Aniruddha Ray, published by Munshiram Manoharlal, talks about the pre-colonial history of the two port towns, Masulipatnam and Cambay. It was published in India in 1994.
Machilipatnam is located at on the southeast coast of India and in the east corner of Andhra Pradesh. The city has an average elevation of 14 meters
Machilipatnam gets annual rainfall due to the southwest monsoon. The climate is tropical in nature with hot summers and moderate winters. The hottest months are between April and June. The average normal rainfall in the district is 102 cm.
Machilipatnam was frequently hit by cyclones due to low pressure created by the southwest monsoon. On 8 December 2004, a high capacity S-Band Doppler radar meant for cyclone warning was installed, commissioned and made operational at the city. It was purchased from a German manufacturer, Gematronik.
With the installation of the radar, the state will be better equipped to track down cyclones by the onset of monsoon, according to an official from the State Met Office talking to the The Hindu newspaper. This facility will monitor 960 km long coastline of the state.
The radar's information is posted real-time on the Indian Meteorological Department website Similar radars were installed in other coastal cities forming a S-Band Cyclone Detection Radar Network.
For administrative purposes, Machilipatnam falls into Bandar revenue division of the Krishna District
. It is a special grade municipality with 36 panchayats
and 28 villages
. The city area covers an area of 28 kilometres (10 miles).
Machilipatnam is an assembly constituency in Andhra Pradesh.
It is governed by the Collector
and the District Magistrate of the Krishna district
Machilipatnam has many small scale industries
- Fashion Gold (also called rolled gold or gold covering) ornaments are made here. Famous gold covering companies are Yasasri gold, National gold, Uma gold, Hema Sri Gold Covering Works, Raja gold, Fancy gold, Mohan gold, etc. are among the leading manufacturers of fashion gold in Machilipatnam.
- Agriculture is the most important occupation, paddy being the main food crop produced.
- Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), a unit of the Union Defence Ministry, of Government of India, has a manufacturing unit here. BEL is involved in design, development and manufacture of sophisticated, state-of-the art electronic equipments that are used by Indian Defence Services and para military organisations.
- CINEMA A Movie in Olden days was decided if it is a hit or flop based on the first show at Machilipatnam. There are many theatres in City of Machilipatnam. Some of the best theatre till date are Venkateswara DTS & Ramsanthi DTS, Ramaraju DTS, Sri Krishna DTS, Sri Nataraj, Sri Venkat DTS and Sri Vinayak DTS etc.,
Arts and Crafts
fabrics of Machilipatnam and Kalahasti
, with their intricate designs, are used in clothing and wall hangings. Kalamkari refers to dye-painted cloths and the technique used to create them. Their name derives from kalam
, for a pen-like tool used to draw outlines on the cloth, and kari
(work). Fabrics are outlined with a cotton-tipped bamboo stick and dyed in vegetable or mineral colours. The process involves washing, rinsing, soaking and bleaching muslin, and applying mordants and dyes using natural substances like indigo for blue, madder for red, mango bark and dried myrobalan fruit for yellow, palm sugar and rusted iron for black. The dyeing process is very elaborate and can take several days to complete. While some pieces are hand-drawn, large canvas and sheets are block-printed. Kalahasti is noted for its wall hangings depicting mythological tales and characters, while Machilipatnam for the block-painted large prints used for sarees
The work done in Machilipatnam, often using block printing in conjunction with hand painting, features more decorative floral and vegetal designs that appealed to local kingdoms and to an extraordinary export trade. This culminated in European demand for Machilipatnam chintz, which derives its name from the Hindi word chint (spotted).
As of 2001 India census
, Machilipatnam had a population of 183,370.Present population(2008) rose to 215,043. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Machilipatnam has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 73%, and female literacy is 65%. In Machilipatnam, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.
People in Machilipatnam practice Hinduism
. Hindus and Christians speak Telugu and the Muslims tend to speak Urdu. Women of all cultures and faiths typically wear the traditional Indian dress, the sari
- sometimes Shalwar Qamis
, a popular Indian Classical Dance
form originated at Kuchipudi
, 25 kilometres from Machilipatnam. The dance form is in practice in Machilipatnam.
Machilipatnam is a city with a rich history of foreign conquests, business and trade. The beaches in Machilipatnam are long, broad, pristine, with pale blonde sands.
- Manginapudi Beach, a beach side fishing hamlet, located at a distance of 11 km from Machilipatnam, is well known for its scenic beauty and also as a historic port city. During its heyday this port served as a gateway to India. The beach has a natural bay with shallow waters. The unique feature of this beach is that instead of sand it contains black soil.
- Thousands of pilgrims take a holy dip in the sea, at the beach, during an annual Hindu festival called Khartika poornima.
- A full fledged dance school at the beach, offers courses that train students in the Kuchipudi, popular dance form.
- Carting the visitors with the old lighthouse, Dattashram on the banks of sea coast is a pilgrimage site. Dattashram has an ancient Shiva temple and Datta temple that was recently built. Manginapudi is popularly known as "Datta Rameswaram" due to the consecration of 9 wells to bath, as in Rameswaram.
- Panduranga Swamy temple at Chilakalapudi, near the city, close to the Manginapudi Beach, is a famous piligrimage site. It is a temple of Lord Vishnu, said to be similar to the temple at Pandaripur.
- Sivaganga Temple is a historical temple maintained by Challapalli jameendars rather than the Government.
- Anjaneya Swami Temple, in Paraspet, was built by Samardha Ramadasa Swami, the guru of Chatrapathi Sivaji.
- The relics of Bandar Kota (Machilipatnam Fort) can be visited now. The old light house is still standing.
- Ghantasala, 21 km from Machilipatnam, it has the remains of an old Buddhist stupa.
- Agastheeswara Temple, 36 km from Machilipatnam, is a temple of Lord Shiva, a piligrimage site. Lord Shiva at this temple is called by the name, Ekaratri Mallikarjunaswamy. An annual festival is celebrated at this temple when the deities are taken out in procession.
- Gudivada, North west of Machilipatnam, visitors are attracted by the old ruins of the stupas.
- Further up the coast of Machilipatnam there are five temples dedicated to Lord Shiva. These ancient temples are located at Amravati, Samalkot, Bhimavaram, Draksharama and Chebrolu.
- Shivaganga temple is one of the oldest temples located on the Avanigadda road attracts tourists and devotees all through the year. On Shivaratri major celebrations are carried out by the temple trustees.
Another important city in Krishna district is Vijayawada which is 65 km. away. The national highway from Hyderabad to Vijayawada is being extended to Bandar Kota through Machilipatnam. The coastal highway running through Machiipatnam has been sanctioned recently.
Machilipatnam is connected to Vijayawada, south central railway's important railway station and junction. There are eleven passenger trains to Vijayawada, one fast passenger to Visakhapatnam and two express trains to Secunderabad and Tirupathi. One thrice a week express train to Bangalore.
There is no transport by the sea at the moment. However, Machilipatnam Deep Water Seaport is under development by Vajra Seaports Pvt. Ltd, a consortium led by Maytas Infra Limited.
The nearest airport is Gannavaram airport near Vijayawada, about 70 km away.
The city receives television and radio transmissions from Hyderabad
and the rest of country.
All major print media are in circulation here. The major Telugu dailies include the Eenadu, Saakshi, Surya, Vaartha, Andhra Jyoti, Andhra Bhoomi and Andhra Prabha. The major English dailies are The Deccan Chronicle, Business Standard, The Hindu, The Times of India, The Indian Express and The Economic Times.
The town also receives television channels transmitted from Mumbai, Hyderabad and elsewhere.
Machilipatnam is a great educational center, offering all the academic courses except Medicine. It has public (state-run) and private-run schools. The local Hindu college and allied institutions offer KG to PG level of education. It has a law college, women's college, B. Ed college exclusively for women, MBA, Engineering college, PG courses under one banner. Daita Madhusudhana Sastry, the former secretary and correspondent of the Hindu college and allied institutions, is instrumental in the establishment and expansion of most of the educational institutions in Machilipatnam.
SDA Mission High School, Edepalli, founded by Mrs. Esther Rani Saggurthi, offers education from kindergarten to 12th standard.
- Andhra Jateeya Kalasala (National College) is affiliated to Nagarjuna University. It offers education from 5th Class to Undergraduation, B.Ed and ITI. The college was established by Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramaiah.
- Amareswari Vidya Niketan is a well known and famous English medium school situated in Rustumbad and is one of the oldest schools.
- St. Francis English Medium High School - Christian missionary run school provides education from kindergarten to the higher secondary level affiliated with ICSE, New Delhi.
- HYNY High School and Elementary School, an aided school and run by missionaries from Finland. Miss A.E. Hyny is the founder of this school.
- Sri Venkateswara Public School, an affiliated institute to the Hindu College, Machilipatnam, is the only CBSE school in the city until the Kendriya Vidyalaya came up. The School has set high standards for education by providing NCERT (central) syllabus.
- Sharon High School, provides education from kindergarten to the higher secondary level, Mrs Indira Deenabandu was the founder of this school.
- Nirmala High School, a Christian missionary run school provides education from kindergarten to the higher secondary level.
- Noble College, founded in 1843 is University Grants Commission (UGC) approved and offers graduation studies.. Right Reverend G. Dyvasirvadam, the Bishop-in-Krishna Godavari heads the management of the Noble College.
- Andhra Jaateeya Kalasala founded in 1910 by local freedom fighters, is University Grants Commission (UGC) approved and offers graduation studies.
- Hindu College was established in 1928. It is affiliated to Nagarjuna University and offers graduation studies. It is a University Grants Commission (UGC) approved college.
- Sri Venkateswara Hindu College Of Engineering was established in 1980. It offers engineering degrees in civil, electrical and electronics, electronics and communication and mechanical engineering divisions and business studies.
- Viswabharati vidyalama is the oldest Telugu medium school.This school was established in 1969.
- Jaihind Hind High school founded on 15 August 1947 is a famous school situated near Inugudurupet having two branches
- St. Mary's A.A.M.M High school (short for Adi Andhra Madana Mohana and also known as 'RATNA HIGH SCHOOL') is one of the oldest schools located in Machavaram area.
- Gandhi Vidyalaya is a famous school situated at Balaramunipet, It is a government aided public school.
- Anniebesant Sisu Vidya Mandiram is a famous Telugu medium school situated at Edepally.
- Varalakshmi Polytechnic College is Machilipatnam's only polytechnic college, located near the Panduranga temple in Chilakalapudi.
- Pingali Venkayya, the designer of the Indian national flag.
- Dr Pattabhi Sitaramayya, 1880-1959, a freedom fighter and historian of the Indian National Congress and founder of Andhra bank and Andhra Insurance Company.
- Pitcheswara Rao Atluri, a famous writer did his schooling at the Hindu College.
- C. K. Nayudu, the first Indian cricket captain hailed from this great town
- Raghupathi Venkayya considered the father of Telugu cinema hailed from this town]]
- Mutnuri Krishna Rao - Founder of "Krishna Patrika", a literary magazine.
- Adavi Bapi Raju - A renowned writer and painter.
- Gudlavalleti Venakata Chalapathi Rao - A noted writer, philosopher and an ex Deputy commissioner of Endowments Department.
- Ayyagari Ramamoorthy Panthulu - Started Andhra Scientific Company, which manufactured sophisticated optical instruments like sacharimeters, clinical and surgical microscopes, etc. Recently this company was taken by BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED (BEL) which now has its name.
Noted Film Stars
Many notable film personalities also hail from Machilipatnam
- Kamalakara Kameswara Rao - Film director
- Sutti Velu - Noted comedian famous for his "sutti" act with Veerabhadra Rao
- Kanchanamala - Female character actress
- Poornima - Heroine of "Srivariki Prema Lekha" by Jandhyala
- Achyut KunapaReddy- Noted TV Actor.
- Nirmalamma - Telugu film character artiste,
Noted People Associated with Machilipatnam
- Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, former president of India, worked as a lecturer at the Andhra Jateeya Kalasala.
- Viswanadha Satyanarayana, writer of the famous novel "Veyi Padagalu", lived and worked in Machilipatnam.
- Munimanikyam Narasimha Rao, creator of "Kantham" character worked as a teacher at Hindu High School for several years.
- Tirupathi Venkata Kavulu, famous poet duo who wrote several literary works and did "Ashtavadhanas", worked at Hindu High School.
- Veeramachaneni Venkata Krishna Rao, Founder Member of Steel Manufacturing & Trading Companies - Steel Exchnage India Limited & Vizag Profiles Limited, Visakhapatnam.
- Dr.Nori Datathatreya-a fomous onchologist took birth here
- Divi Murali krishna prasad-chairperson of divi's pharma limited born and studied in this place