Marshall Warren Nirenberg
(born April 10
) is a U.S. biochemist
. He shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana
and Robert W. Holley
for describing the genetic code
and how it operates in protein synthesis. In the same year, together with Har Gobind Khorana, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
from Columbia University
By 1959, experiments and analysis such as the Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment
, the Hershey-Chase experiment
, the Watson-Crick structure
and the Meselson-Stahl experiment
had shown DNA
to be the molecule of genetic information. It was not known, however, how DNA directed the expression of proteins, or what role RNA
had in these processes. Nirenberg teamed up with Heinrich J. Matthaei
at the National Institutes of Health
to answer these questions. They produced RNA comprised solely of uracil
, a nucleotide
that only occurs in RNA. They then added this synthetic poly-uracil RNA into a cell-free extract of Escherichia coli
which contained the DNA, RNA, ribosomes
and other cellular machinery for protein
synthesis. They added DNase, which breaks apart the DNA, so that no additional proteins would be produced other than that from their synthetic RNA. They then added 1 radioactively labeled amino acid
, the building blocks of proteins, and 19 unlabeled amino acids to the extract, varying the labeled amino acid in each sample. In the extract containing the radioactively labeled phenylalanine
, the resulting protein was also radioactive. They realized that they had found the genetic code for phenylalanine: UUU (three uracil bases in a row) on RNA. This was the first step in deciphering the codons
of the genetic code and the first demonstration of messenger RNA
(see Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment
Nirenberg received great scientific attention for these experiments. Within a few years, his research team had performed similar experiments and found that three-base repeats of adenosine (AAA) produced the amino acid lysine, cytosine repeats (CCC) produced proline and guanine repeats (GGG) produced nothing at all. The next breakthrough came when Phillip Leder, a postdoctoral researcher in Nirenberg's lab, developed a method for determining the genetic code on pieces of tRNA (see Nirenberg and Leder experiment). This greatly sped up the assignment of three-base codons to amino acids so that 50 codons were identified in this way. Khorana's experiments confirmed these results and completed the genetic code translation.
Nirenberg's later research focused on neuroscience, neural development, and the homeobox genes.
Nirenberg was born in New York City
, the son of Harry and Minerva Nirenberg. He developed rheumatic fever as a boy, so the family moved to Orlando, Florida
to take advantage of the subtropical climate. He developed an early interest in biology. In 1948 he received his B.S. degree, and in 1952, a master's degree in zoology
from the University of Florida
at Gainesville. His dissertation for the Master's thesis was an ecological and taxonomic study of caddis flies (Trichoptera). He received his Ph.D. in biochemistry
from the University of Michigan
, Ann Arbor in 1957.
He began his postdoctoral work at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1957 as a fellow of the American Cancer Society. In 1960 became a research biochemist at the NIH. In 1959 he began to study the steps that relate DNA, RNA and protein. Nirenberg's groundbreaking experiments advanced him to become the head of the Section of Biochemical Genetics in 1962. He was married in 1961 to Perola Zaltzman, a chemist from the University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro.
Nirenberg was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1966 and the National Medal of Honor in 1968 by President Lyndon B. Johnson. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2001.
- Voet, Donald and Judith G. Voet. 1995. Biochemistry 2nd ed. John Wilely & Sons, New York.
- U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Profiles in Science: The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers."