lymphoma

lymphoma

[lim-foh-muh]
lymphoma, a cancer of the tissue of the lymphatic system. There are two categories of lymphomas. One type is termed Hodgkin's disease, the other, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (see lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's). See also neoplasm.
lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's, any cancer of the lymphoid tissue (see lymphatic system) in which the Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of Hodgkin's disease (the other category of lymphoma) are not present. There are about 10 different types of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, some slower- or faster-growing than others. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can affect children as well as adults. In most cases the cause is unknown, but an increased incidence has been observed in people who have been exposed to Agent Orange, and some forms of the disease are frequently seen in people with AIDS, many of these in association with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Symptoms

The first symptom of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is often a painless swelling of a lymph node in the neck, the groin, or under the arm. Other symptoms include fever, night sweats, itching, and unexplained weight loss. Diagnosis is made by laboratory study of tissue obtained by taking a biopsy of the suspicious lymph node or nodes.

Treatment

Treatment depends on how far the disease has progressed. It may include external-beam radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or biological therapy (boosting the body's immune response to the disease). Rituxan, a genetically engineered drug involving monoclonal antibodies, has been approved for use against some low-grade (slow-growing) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Bone marrow transplantation is also sometimes used. In this technique, bone marrow (blood cell-producing tissue inside bone) is taken from the patient and treated to kill any cancer cells. The patient is then given very high dose chemotherapy designed to destroy the cancer; it also destroys the remaining bone marrow. After chemotherapy, the stored marrow is reinserted into the patient. In children, chemotherapy is the most common treatment.

Bibliography

See publications of the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society.

Any of a group of malignant diseases (see cancer) that usually start in the lymph nodes or lymphoid tissues. The two major types, Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, each have several subtypes. Diagnosis of either type requires biopsy, usually from the lymph nodes. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas may be diffuse (widespread) or nodular (concentrated in nodules); nodular lymphomas generally develop more slowly.

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Lymphoma a type of neoplasm that originates in lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system). They often originate in lymph nodes, presenting as an enlargement of the node (a tumor). Lymphomas are closely related to lymphoid leukemias, which also originate in lymphocytes but do not form tumors. There are many types of lymphomas, and in turn, lymphomas are a part of the broad group of diseases called hematological neoplasms.

Thomas Hodgkin published in 1832 the first description of lymphoma, specifically of the form named after him, Hodgkin's lymphoma. Since, many other forms of lymphoma have been described and many classifications proposed. The 1982 Working formulation classification became very popular. It introduced the category Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), itself divided into 16 different diseases. However, since these different lymphomas have little in common with each other, the NHL label is of limited usefulness for doctors or patients and is slowly being abandoned. The latest classification by the WHO (2001) lists 43 different forms of lymphoma divided in four broad groups.

Some forms of Lymphoma are indolent (e.g. Small lymphocytic lymphoma), compatible with a long life even without treatment, whereas other forms are aggressive (e.g. Burkitt's lymphoma), causing rapid deterioration and death. The prognosis therefore depends on the correct classification of the disease, established by a pathologist after examination of a biopsy. Chemotherapy is prescribed by an oncologist, radiation therapy by a radiation oncologist.

Although older classifications referred to histiocytic lymphomas, these are recognized in newer classifications as of B, T or NK cell lineage. True Histiocytic malignancies are rare and are classified as sarcomas.

Prevalence

According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, lymphomas account for about five percent of all cases of cancer in the United States, and Hodgkin's lymphoma in particular accounts for less than one percent of all cases of cancer in the United States.

Because the whole system is part of the body's immune system, patients with a weakened immune system, such as from HIV infection or from certain drugs or medication, also have a higher incidence of lymphoma.

Classification

REAL classification

In the 1990s, the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) Classification attempted to apply immunophenotypic and genetic features in identifying distinct clinicopathologic NHL entities.

WHO classification

The WHO Classification, published in 2001, is the latest classification of lymphoma and is based on the "Revised European-American Lymphoma classification" (REAL). This system attempts to group lymphomas by cell type, i.e., the normal cell type that most resembles the tumor. There are three large groups: the B cell, T cell, and natural killer cell tumors. Other less common groups, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, are also recognized. (ICD-O codes are provided where available.)

Mature B cell neoplasms

Mature T cell and natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms

Hodgkin lymphoma

Immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders

  • Associated with a primary immune disorder
  • Associated with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • Post-transplant
  • Associated with Methotrexate therapy

Working formulation and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

The 1982 Working Formulation is a classification of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. It has since been replaced by other lymphoma classifications, the latest published by the WHO in 2001, but is still used by cancer agencies for compilation of lymphoma statistics.

Other classification systems

Diagnosis, etiology, staging, prognosis, and treatment

See the article of the corresponding form of lymphoma.

See also

References

External links

Information

Charities

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