See C. Bode, The American Lyceum (1956, repr. 1968).
Form of adult education popular in the U.S. during the mid-19th century. The lyceums were voluntary local associations that sponsored lectures and debates on topics of current interest. The first was founded in 1826, and by 1834 there were approximately 3,000 in the Northeast and Midwest. They attracted such speakers as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Frederick Douglass, Henry David Thoreau, Daniel Webster, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Susan B. Anthony. The movement began to decline with the outbreak of the Civil War and eventually blended into the postbellum Chautauqua movement. In their heyday the lyceums contributed to the broadening of the school curricula and the development of local museums and libraries.
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The precise usage of the term varies among various countries.
(See also Lyceum Movement for a discussion of the lyceum movement and its participants in the United States.)
The Lyceum (Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) was a gymnasium located just outside the walls of ancient Athens, most famous for its association with Aristotle. The Lyceum, an important early milestone in the development of Western science and philosophy, was named for its sanctuary to Apollo Lykeios which was 2 centuries older, dating from before the 6th century BC.
Aristotle founded his famous school there in 335 BCE and walked in the Lyceum's stoae and grounds as he lectured, surrounded by a throng of students, so the philosophical school he founded was called the Peripatetics. Aristotle was the head of his school until 322 BCE when he fled to Macedon after a charge of impiety was made against him. Theophrastus served as the second head of the school. Later heads include Strato of Lampsacus and Alexander of Aphrodisias.
The school was sacked by Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 86 BCE, but it was later rebuilt. The precise date at which the Lyceum ceased to be used is not known. The location of the complex was lost for centuries, until it was rediscovered in 1996, during excavations for the new Museum of Modern Art. Recovery of the site was a goal for modern Greek national identity. "We have now, here, in Athens, the main proof about the historical continuity of the Hellenic cultural heritage," said Cultural Minister Evangelos Venizelos.
It is worth noting that Aristotle's Lyceum was built on the site of the Temple of Apollo of Lyceus - the protector of the flock against the wolf (lycos).
The Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was opened on October 19, 1811 in the neoclassical building designed by Vasily Stasov and situated next to the Catherine Palace. The first graduates were all brilliant and included Aleksandr Pushkin and Alexander Gorchakov. The opening date was celebrated each year with carousals and revels, and Pushkin composed new verses for each of those occasions. In January 1844 the Lyceum was moved to Saint Petersburg.
During 33 years of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum's existence, there were 286 graduates. The most famous of these were Anton Delwig, Wilhelm Küchelbecher, Nicholas de Giers, Dmitry Tolstoy, Yakov Karlovich Grot, Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky, Alexei Lobanov-Rostovsky and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin.
Lyceums also emerged in the former Soviet Union countries after they became independent. One typical example is Uzbekistan, where all high schools were replaced with lyceums ("litsey" is the Russian term, derived from French "lycee"), offering three-year educational program with a certain major in certain direction. Unlike Turkey, Uzbek lyceums do not hold University entrance examination, which gives students the right to enter a University, but they hold a kind of "mock examination" which is designed to test their eligibility for a certain University.
There is a major university in the City of Manila called LYCEUM. Its complete name is Lyceum of the Philippines University. It can also be called on the acronym LPU. Its branches also bear the name "Lyceum". There are other schools that are not affiliated with LPU but has the word "Lyceum" in their names. Thus, it can also be used to name any educational instititution. However, LPU is the original bearer of the name and still has the word pertained to it.
Polish liceums can be divided into several types: