Luzhou

Luzhou

[ly-joh]
Luzhou: see Hefei, China.
or Ho-fei formerly Luzhou or Lu-chou

City (pop., 2003 est.: 1,170,000), central China. The capital of Anhui province since 1949, the present city dates from the Bei (Northern) Song dynasty (960–1126). It is a natural centre of communications, with easy water transport to the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and important land routes running through it. A railway built in the 1930s transports much of its produce. It is the main location of China's University of Science and Technology.

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Luzhou most well-known for its alcoholic beverages , is a prefecture-level city in Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, with an urban population of 456,200 (Dec,30,2006).

Location

At the junction of the Yangtze and the Tuo rivers, Luzhou is located in southeastern Sichuan Province and borders Chongqing Municipality, Guizhou and Yunnan Provinces.

History

The history of Luzhou dates back to Xia (1600 BC) and Shang (1100 BC) Dynasties. Luzhou became a prefecture level city in 1983.
History of Luzhou
Luzhou, a well-known historic and cultural city in China, boasting a long history of more than 2000 years. Dating back to 7,000 years ago, this area of present-day Luzhou was inhabited by human beings. Early in the Shang and Zhou period, 11th century BC, Luzhou was an appendage in the State of Ba. Later in 316 BC, Ba prefecture which included most part of Luzhou was established by Emperor Huiwen of the Qin Dynasty (221 BC-208 BC) after his conquering of the State of Ba and Shu. During this period, great improvement in economy and culture was achieved in aspect of the advanced production technique and culture introduced by the immigrants from the middle land. In Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 23) , Jiangyang county was set up in the area of current Jiangyang district where the Tuojing river and Yangtze river emerged. Then, in order to exploit the southwest region, Emperor Wu of Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) expanded this county. As a result, Luzhou became a prime bordering county which was the portal of Tuojing river and the barrier of western Sichuan, which brought great prosperity to salt-refinery and agriculture. Song Dynasty (196-1127) was a splendid time throughout Luzhou’s history since it bloomed into a rich and populous place with fertile and profound land, flourishing agriculture and blooming business. It was known as the natural granary of southern Shu. Furthermore, wine-making industry and salt-refinery were in larger expansion. The method to decoct salt with natural gas was discovered at that time according to ancient literature. In addition, trade and business between the residents and ethnic groups was popular and protective wall as well as forts were constructed by the local government. In Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), Luzhou remained an important place of wine-making, salt-refinery and tea-making industries. A large number of wooden ships were made to activate shipping industry, promoting the exchange of goods with the outside. In 1373, Ming Dynasty (1644-1911), waves of immigrants from other parts of China brought rapid growth in economy and culture. Luzhou served as a political, economic, martial and cultural center where Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan met. December 6, 1949 saw the liberation of Luzhou. Later in 1960, it became a city under the government of Sichuan province, encompassing 5 counties which originally belonged to Yibin city. Given an comprehensive reform under the guidance of reform and opening policy, Luzhou gradually stepped into market economy. Nowadays, it is regarded as the nationally key base of chemical lines, machinery and wine-making industry.

Historic and Cultural Relics

Bao’en Pagoda
Located directly in the downtown of Luzhou, Bao’en pagoda was built in 1148, southern Song Dynasty, and was maintained respectively in 1983 and 1985, []Qing Dynasty]]. Being 33.3 m high, it is an octagon brick and stone structure of seven-layer pavilion style. It has a bronze top and there are 107 steps in its spiral flight. The base is an octagon of 4.1 m each side, 4.5 m high; inside it are 256 figures set in 90 niches. The Bao’en pagoda was listed by the People’s Government of Sichuan Province as a historical and culture relic under provincial protection in April 1991.
Dragon Head Bridge
Constructed in Ming Dynasty, Dragon Head Bridge spans over the Nine Bends Creek and is a precious stone bridge with distinctive style of Ming Dynasty around the country. 5m high, 54 m long and 1.9 m wide, the bridge has 14 piers separating it into 13 organs. The eight piers amongst the mid section was characterized by carved traditionally auspicious beast, such as huge dragon, lion, elephant and kylin. It was announced as a key national culture relic in 1996.
Longtou Pass
Longtou Pass, about 2.5 km long, is located in the southern suburban area of Luzhou, with construction that started in Han Dynasty when Emperor Guangxu was in his reign. Bordering Tuojiang river in the north and Yangtze river in the south, it obtains the name, Longtou Pass, since it looks like a huge dragon passing through these two rivers .It is the only land-path because Luzhou is a city surrounded by rivers in other three sides. Longtou Pass is the very place where Liu Bocheng waged Luzhou Uprising and it was listed as a protected historic and cultural relic of Luzhou in April 1984 and a provincial one in 1996.
National Vintage Square
National Vintage Square located in the bustling commercial center of Luzhou is a typical engineering image representing the strong aroma of Luzhou Vintage. It is a scientifically planned and beautified square with a serene environment and clear arrangement, set off by surroundings – truly a place makes you feel mellow when you are roaming. Here remain 460 cellars of the Ming and Qing dynasties when wine was made by hand, which has created considerable economic efficiency for four centuries and become a wonder in the world’s wine brewing history for its exceptional value in economy, history and culture.
Spring and Autumn Temple
Being situated in Xuyong county, Spring and Autumn Temple was built in 1906, Qing Dynasty. Originally, it was a temple for Guany (the Lord of Guan) and then rebuilt as an assembly hall of some merchants doing salt business from Shaanxi. It is well-known for its distinctive architecture style, including fine sculpt, vivid shape, artistic conception and has been listed as a protected historic and cultural relic of Luzhou.
Baizitu
Baizitu lies by the Tuojiang river, the northwestern corner of Luzhou city. Its got the name Baizitu for the stone inscription of the Qing Dynasty and was the protected historic and cultural relic of Luzhou.

Economy

Luzhou has always been a hub of economic activities in the tri-province border area of Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou. Food, liquor, and chemicals production, along with construction equipment manufacturing are the most important industries of the local economy. Total GDP reached 33.11 billion yuan in 2006 (per capita 7,819 yuan).

Liquor industry

Luzhou Old Cellar and Langjiu are the two best known brands of liquor with national and international reputations

Wine Industry in Luzhou Boasting a long history of wine industry, Luzhou is renowned at home and abroad for its well-known liquors like Luzhou Vintage and Gulin Lang Wine. It is a nationally famous wine industry base and wine city. Luzhou has developed into nationally comprehensive system of wine industry, concentrating on Luzhou Vintage Co. Ltd and Lang Wine Factory. Over 200 wine products are listed as national and provincial wine with high grade and have good market in China and other countries and districts around the world. Luzhou Vintage and Lang Wine are two of the six nationally famous wines in Sichuan province, which makes it become one of the three districts enjoying two nationally famous wines in China.

Luzhou Laojiao 1573

Machine Building Industry

Luzhou is one of the nine largest machine building industry production bases in China and the manufacturing center of entirely hydraulic truck crane and excavator. Changjiang Engineering Machine Group consists of Changjiang Crane Factory , Changjiang Hydraulic Device Factory , Changiang Excavator Factory (now Sichuan Bonny Heavy Machinery Co.) A extended production system producing national engineering machine mainframe and basic devices and offering maintenance has came into being. Among the cities along Yangtze River, Luzhou enjoys the second largest production of entirely hydraulic truck machine, just being next to Shanghai. Changjiang Crane Factory being directly under this huge group is a large scale enterprise which has the longest history of producing entirely hydraulic automobile crane, most complete devices and strong carrying capacity and is entitled as the” National Manufacturing Center of Entirely Hydraulic Machine”. It is also the birthplace of the first entirely hydraulic automobile crane in our county. Twelve hydraulic cranes researched and produced with advanced standards in 1980s stand the world, whose carrying capacity ranked No.5 around the world, No.2 in Asia, No.1 in China. Changjiang Excavator Factory is an important and large scale enterprise of Ministry of Construction and the only one excavator factory with full series of service. Its new product, WY160 crane, had obtained the ‘Golden Dragon Award “and “Silver Quality Award” granted by the state and R982 hydraulic crane has the largest dipper capacity in China. Changjiang Hydraulic Devices Factory is the key enterprise appointed by Ministry of Machine-Building Industry and Electronics Industry to produce hydraulic components and devices. Its products has expanding market around the world and enjoys good reputation among the domestic counterparts and customers.

Chemical Industry

Chemical industry is the largest and most promising pillar industry of Luzhou, especially the natural gas industry. Luzhou is one of the 16 largest chemical industry bases and 16 fine chemical industry bases decided by the National Ministry of Chemical Industry. At present, the chemical industry of Luzhou has developed into a national chemical industry system covering production, education, scientific research, design, machine and architecture. A group of nationally large scale enterprises with well equipment and strong finance and technique power have been established and achieved the globally advanced level. Lutianhua enterprise is the most extended carbamide and oil chemical production bases, owning the largest device to produce fatty acid, fatty amine, synthetic ammonia and carbamide. Its annual output of carbamide is 1.24 million tons and synthetic ammonia 0.9 million tons. It is one of the 500 national largest enterprises. Tianhua Co, Ltd is a key enterprise which brings in synthetic ammonia 0.3 million tons and carbamide 0.6 million tons, processing two sets of chemical fertilizer devices with world technical levels. Luzhou Chemical Factory is a united enterprise undertaking military and civil chemical production. State-owned Torch Chemical Factory is the only production base of "801" and gained the national quality golden award , surpassing the America Standard.

Tourism Industry

Luzhou is one of the China Excellent Tourist Cities with many scenic spots and historic sites, such as Yuchan scenic spot in Luxian county, Fobao scenic spot in Hejiang county, Mt. Fangshan scenic spot in Jiangyang county, the litchi and longan orchard along the Yangtze River and Tuojiang River, Nine Lions scenic spot, the Mt. Phoenix in Naxi county, Huangjin virginal forest in Gulin county, etc. With the official approbation of National Ministry of Forestry, Fobao Forest Park became the National Forestry Park and was elected as “AAA” tourist attraction in 2001 by National Tourism Administration and the ‘AA” was granted to Yuchan and Mt. Fangshan scenic sports. Besides, Luzhou city and Xuyong county is respectively the nationally and provincially historic and cultural city. Wine Cellar of Luzhou Vintage constructed in Ming Dynasty and Dragon Head Bridge were listed as a key protected cultural relic of the state. There are more than ten protected historical relics of Sichuan Province, including the site of Red Army’s Four-time Crossing the Chishui River, Yuchan scenic spot, Spring and Autumn Temple, etc. The Taiping Ferry Museum for the Red Army’s Four-time Crossing the Chishui River is nominated the “National Demonstration base for patriotic education” by the central Propaganda Ministry in 2001. Moreover, the Sci-tech Park of Luzhou Vintage is the national industry tourism demonstration spot and Luzhou Zhangba Longan Orchard is the national agricultural tourism spot. Some other famous tourist attractions are available in Luzhou’s neighboring cities including Leshan, Yibin, Zigong and Chongqing. There are there national scenic spots nearby comprising Bamboo Forest scenic spot, Mt. Simianshan in Chongqing and Sidong Channel in Guizhou Province.

Agriculture

Luzhou is a key comprehensive development zone in the upper Yangtze River and Sichuan province as well as an important production base of commodity grain, fruit, cured tobacco and poultry, including fine rice, litchi, longan, tea, traditional Chinese medicine material, pod, etc.

Transportation

Luzhou has the largest river port in Sichuan on the upper Yangtze, with the capability to load and unload containerships. Expressways connecting to Chengdu and Chongqing were completed in the 1990s. Railroads and an airport provide additional links to several cities in China.

An expressway connecting Luzhou and Longchang is in use and another which is going to connect the city directly with Chongqing is under construction.

Luzhou International Container Pier

The Luzhou International Container Pier handled 4,505 containers in May 2007.

Luzhou Airport

Luzhou Airport was built in 1945 and initially served an air route between China and India by the US Air Force during the World War II. Services were suspended in the 1960s, but later it was used for training purposes by the Chinese Air Force. Major renovations and expansions were completed in January 2001, and now the airport serves direct flights to Beijing, Guangzhou, Kunming, Guiyang and Shenzhen.

Flight information:

Education

Colleges

Geographical Condition and Climate

Geographical Conditions
Luzhou is situated in the northeast of Sichuan province, a meeting place of Sichuan, Guizhou and Chongqing, with a longitude 105o 08’ 41” E~ 106o 28’E and latitude 27o 39’ N~29o 20’N. Covering a total area of 12246.87 sq km, it is 121.64 km long from east to west and 181.84 km wide from south to north. As a prefecture-level city of Sichuan with a registered population of 4.8 million, Luzhou is 267 km away from Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province, and adjacent to Chongqing in the east, bordering Guizhou and Yunnan provinces in the south, Yibin city and Zizhong city in the west, Chongqing and Neijiang in the north. The city governs 7 administrative divisions, including 3 districts (Jiangyang, Longma, Naxi ) and 4 counties (Luxian, Hejiang, Xuyong, Gulin ).

Owning to its position in the southern peripheral area of Sichuan Basin and the connective region with Yunnan and Guizhou plateau, the hypsography of Luzhou is characterized by the river valise, hills, and level lands in the north and highland, mountains, sheer valise and rushing rivers in the south, which bring thriving fishing and agriculture to the northern area and rich forest and mineral resources to the southern region respectively. The lowest part is 203 meters, which lies on the surface of Yangtze river in Jiucengyan, Hejiang county while the highest one located at the peak of Liangzi mountain, Xuyong county, reaching 1902 meters. Moreover, Luzhou is also a city covered by rivers. The Yangtze river is running through the whole area from west to east covering a course of 133 km totally and the maximum flood level is 18.68 meters during the past 30 years. Besides, there are many other rivers converging here, such as Tuo river, Yongling river, Chishui river, Laixi river etc.

Climate
Luzhou generally enjoys subtropical humid climate with vertical climate in the southern mountain area, featuring distinctive seasons, relatively high temperature, rich sunshine, ample rainfall, long frost-free period and that the elements of light, water and heat almost occur in the same season, which offers a suitable environment to the development of agriculture. It’s annual average temperature is around 17.1oC~18.5oC, July being the hottest month (average temp. 27.5oC ) and January the coldest (average temp. 7oC ) and the daily difference in temperature is about 6oC.Snow is rare here. The annual average precipitation is 748.4 mm~1184.2 mm and there is not much rainfall in winter and spring while is affluence in summer and autumn. The precipitation from May to September accounts for 79.2 of the year’s total. As the total sunshine hours averages 1200~1400 and the frost-free period lasts 300~358 days, the corp. growth period is relatively long.

Information

Counties and Districts of Luzhou City

Luxian County (泸县)

Xuyong County (叙永县)

Hejiang County (合江县)

Gulin County (古蔺县)

Jiangyang District (江阳区)

Naxi District (纳溪区)

Longmatan District (龙马潭区)

Reference

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