Lord

Lord

[lawrd]
Buckhurst, Lord: see Sackville, Charles, and Sackville, Thomas.
Haw-Haw, Lord: see Joyce, William.
Stirling, Lord: see Alexander, William.
Darnley, Henry Stuart or Stewart, Lord, 1545-67, second husband of Mary Queen of Scots and father of James I of England (James VI of Scotland). His mother was Margaret Douglas, the daughter of Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England; this made Darnley a candidate for succession to the English throne after Elizabeth I. His father was Matthew Stuart, 4th earl of Lennox. Darnley was born and brought up in England, where his father was in exile. In 1565, at the age of 19, he was allowed by Queen Elizabeth to follow his father to Scotland, and within a short time he married Queen Mary. The motives of the Scottish queen were predominantly political; Darnley was a Catholic and his right of succession to the English throne reinforced Mary's own. However, his handsome appearance and courtly manners must also have impressed Mary because at first she was infatuated with him. The Protestant lords, dismayed at what appeared a Catholic triumph, revolted, but Mary defeated them easily. Within a short time Darnley had shown himself to be a vicious and dissipated man, and Mary denied him the crown matrimonial (which would have given him power equal to Mary's). Wounded in pride and suspicious of Mary's relationship with David Rizzio, Darnley joined a conspiracy against Rizzio. On Mar. 9, 1566, Darnley and a group of nobles seized Rizzio in the queen's presence and stabbed him to death. They may have hoped simultaneously to shock the pregnant queen into fatal illness, but she defeated the coup by winning over Darnley and escaping from her captors to the help of loyal nobles. Darnley soon found himself without a friend in either camp. Although Mary made efforts toward reconciliation after the birth of their son, Darnley remained intractable, and the council demanded that the queen rid herself of him. Possibly with Mary's knowledge, there was then formed a plot, one of whose leaders was the earl of Bothwell. The earl of Morton was later executed for his part in it, and others may have had a hand. Recovering from an illness, Darnley arrived in Edinburgh early in 1567 and lodged in Kirk o' Field, a house just outside the city. On the night of Feb. 9, after a visit from Mary, the house was blown up by gunpowder. In the morning the bodies of Darnley and a page were found strangled in an adjoining garden. Details of the murder remain a historical mystery. Mary's subsequent failure to punish Bothwell and her hasty marriage to him led to the revolt that soon dethroned her.
Kames, Henry Home, Lord, 1696-1782, Scottish judge and philosopher. A man of broad interests and a wide-ranging intellect, his works included dissertations on Scottish law, agriculture, and problems of moral and aesthetic philosophy. Among his writings were Introduction to the Art of Thinking (1761) and Elements of Criticism (1762).
Cobham, John Oldcastle, Lord: see Oldcastle, Sir John.
Monboddo, James Burnett, Lord, 1714-99, English writer, b. Scotland. A pioneer in anthropology, he wrote Of the Origin and Progress of Language (6 vol., 1774-92), in which he anticipated Darwin and much of modern evolutionary theory. His Antient Metaphysics (6 vol., 1779-99) is a defense of Greek philosophy.
also called Lord High Chancellor or Lord Keeper of the Great Seal

British official who is custodian of the great seal and a cabinet minister. Until the 14th century the chancellor served as royal chaplain and king's secretary. The office acquired a more judicial character in the reign of Edward III (1327–77). Most of the office's power, exemplified in the administrations of St. Thomas Becket (died 1170) and Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (died 1530), ceased to exist centuries ago. The lord chancellor, however, remained an important post, with responsibilities that included heading the judiciary and serving as speaker of the House of Lords. As Lords speaker, the chancellor stated the question and took part in debates. In 2006 the office's role was redefined through several constitutional reforms. The lord chancellor lost most judicial functions, and the Lords speaker became an elected office. The changes allowed the lord chancellor to focus on constitutional affairs.

Learn more about lord chancellor with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 2, 1863, Zara, Dalmatia, Austrian Empire—died May 7, 1942, Winterthur, Switz.) Austrian conductor and composer. After studies in Leipzig, he came to the attention of Franz Liszt, who arranged the premiere of Weingartner's first opera at Weimar (1884). He held conducting posts at Danzig, Hamburg, and Mannheim, and he became conductor of the Berlin Opera in 1891. He succeeded Gustav Mahler as conductor of the Vienna Opera (1908–11) and stayed on with the Vienna Philharmonic until 1927. He also directed the Basel Conservatory (1927–33) and was a distinguished writer on music.

Learn more about Weingartner, (Paul) Felix, lord von Münzberg with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 30, 1961, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. basketball player, coach, and executive. He led Indiana University to a national collegiate h1 in 1981. As a guard for the Detroit Pistons (1981–94), he amassed 9,061 career assists and helped the team win two NBA championships (1989, 1990); he is regarded as one of the greatest point guards of all time. He subsequently worked as general manager for the Toronto Raptors and New York Knicks and coached the Indiana Pacers.

Learn more about Thomas, Isiah (Lord), III with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 22, 1916, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 12, 1999, Berlin, Ger.) U.S.-born British violinist and conductor. Raised in San Francisco, he made his debut at age seven. In 1927 he studied with George Enescu (1881–1955) in Paris; he returned to perform to tremendous acclaim in New York the same year and went on to astound audiences worldwide with his precocious depth and proficiency. From 1959 he lived in London, but he did not become a British citizen until 1985. He directed the Bath Festival (1958–68) and the Gstaad Festival from 1956. In 1958 he founded his own chamber orchestra. Often accompanied by his pianist sister, Hephzibah (1920–81), he also made recordings with the sitarist Ravi Shankar.

Learn more about Menuhin, Yehudi, Lord Menuhin of Stoke d'Abernon with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 13, 1849, Blenheim Palace, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died Jan. 24, 1895, London) British politician. Third son of the 7th duke of Marlborough, he entered the House of Commons in 1874. In the early 1880s he joined other Conservatives in forming the Fourth Party, which advocated a “Tory democracy” of progressive conservatism. In 1886, at age 37, he became leader of the House of Commons and chancellor of the Exchequer, but he resigned after his first budget was rejected. Though he had seemed destined to be prime minister, this miscalculation effectively ended his political career. He remained in the Commons until his death, but he lost interest in politics and devoted much time to horse racing. Winston Churchill was his son.

Learn more about Churchill, Randolph (Henry Spencer), Lord with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 26, 1751, London, Eng.—died Nov. 1, 1793, London) English instigator of the anti-Catholic Gordon riots. The third son of the 3rd duke of Gordon, he entered Parliament in 1774. In 1779 he organized the Protestant associations formed to secure the repeal of the Catholic Relief Act (1778). In 1780 he led a mob to Parliament to present a petition against the act. The ensuing riot lasted a week, causing great property damage and nearly 500 casualties. Gordon was charged with, but was acquitted of, high treason. Convicted of libeling the queen of France in 1787, he was imprisoned in Newgate, where he died.

Learn more about Gordon, Lord George with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 30, 1961, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. basketball player, coach, and executive. He led Indiana University to a national collegiate h1 in 1981. As a guard for the Detroit Pistons (1981–94), he amassed 9,061 career assists and helped the team win two NBA championships (1989, 1990); he is regarded as one of the greatest point guards of all time. He subsequently worked as general manager for the Toronto Raptors and New York Knicks and coached the Indiana Pacers.

Learn more about Thomas, Isiah (Lord), III with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 26, 1751, London, Eng.—died Nov. 1, 1793, London) English instigator of the anti-Catholic Gordon riots. The third son of the 3rd duke of Gordon, he entered Parliament in 1774. In 1779 he organized the Protestant associations formed to secure the repeal of the Catholic Relief Act (1778). In 1780 he led a mob to Parliament to present a petition against the act. The ensuing riot lasted a week, causing great property damage and nearly 500 casualties. Gordon was charged with, but was acquitted of, high treason. Convicted of libeling the queen of France in 1787, he was imprisoned in Newgate, where he died.

Learn more about Gordon, Lord George with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 7, 1545, Temple Newsom, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Feb. 9/10, 1567, Edinburgh, Scot.) English nobleman, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and father of James I. Son of Matthew Stewart, earl of Lennox (1516–71), a pretender to the Scottish throne, Henry wed his cousin Mary in 1565 despite the opposition of Elizabeth I and Scottish Protestants. It became evident, even to Mary, that superficial charm was his only positive attribute. After he played a role in the murder of Mary's secretary, David Riccio, he was himself murdered at age 21 at the instigation of James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell (1535–78), whom Mary soon married.

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The Lord's Prayer, also known as the Our Father or Pater noster, is probably the best-known prayer in Christianity. On Easter Sunday 2007 it was estimated that 2 billion Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Christians read, recited, or sang the short prayer in hundreds of languages in houses of worship of all shapes and sizes. Although many theological differences and various modes and manners of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit "there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together…, and these words always unite us."

Two versions of it occur in the New Testament, one in the Gospel of Matthew as part of the discourse on ostentation, a section of the Sermon on the Mount, and the other in the Gospel of Luke .

The prayer's absence from the Gospel of Mark (cf. the Prayer for forgiveness of ), taken together with its presence in both Luke and Matthew, has caused scholars who accept the Q hypothesis (as opposed to Augustinian hypothesis) to conclude that it is a quotation from the Q document, especially because of the context in Luke's presentation of the prayer.

The context of the prayer in Matthew is as part of a discourse deploring people who pray simply for the purpose of being seen to pray. Matthew describes Jesus as instructing people to pray after the manner of this prayer. Taking into account the prayer's structure, flow of subject matter and emphases, many interpret the Lord's Prayer as a guideline on how to pray rather than something to be learned and repeated by rote. Some disagree, suggesting that the prayer was intended as a specific prayer to be used. The New Testament reports Jesus and the disciples praying on several occasions; but as it never describes them actually using this prayer, it is uncertain how important it was originally viewed as being.

English versions

There are several different English translations of the Lord's Prayer. One of the first texts in English is the Northumbrian translation from around 650. The three best-known are

These are given here along with the Greek text of and the Latin version used in the Roman Catholic Church. In four of the texts given below, the square brackets indicate the doxology with which the prayer is often concluded. This is not included in critical editions of the New Testament, such as that of the United Bible Societies, as not belonging to the original text of , nor is it always part of the Book of Common Prayer text. In the Roman Catholic Church, the doxology was for the first time added to the Roman Rite liturgy of the Mass in 1969, but not as part of or attached to the Our Father. style="font-size:80%;" Original text in Greek

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν,
ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφίεμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν,
ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
[Ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.]

Latin version

Pater noster, qui es in caelis:
sanctificetur Nomen Tuum;
adveniat Regnum Tuum;
fiat voluntas Tua,
sicut in caelo, et in terra.
Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie;
et dimitte nobis debita nostra,
Sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris;
et ne nos inducas in tentationem;
sed libera nos a Malo.

See also version with macrons.

1662 BCP

Our Father, which art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come;
thy will be done,
in earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive them that trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
[For thine is the kingdom,
the power, and the glory,
For ever and ever.
Amen.]

1928 BCP

Our Father, who art in heaven,
Hallowed be thy Name.
Thy kingdom come.
Thy will be done,
On earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
As we forgive those who trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation,
But deliver us from evil.
[For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory,
for ever and ever.
Amen.]

ELLC (1988)

Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name,
your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as in heaven.
Give us today our daily bread.
Forgive us our sins
as we forgive those who sin against us.
Save us from the time of trial
and deliver us from evil.

[For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours
now and for ever. Amen.]

Other English translations are also used. The Eastern Orthodox Churches use a modified version in their English services. Some non-Christian groups, such as Religious Science, sometimes use the prayer also, often with modified wording, such as replacing the word "evil" with "error".

Though uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord's Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions often use the term sins. The latter choice may be due to , which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to (immediately after the text of the prayer), where Jesus speaks of trespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses (παραπτώματα) in the prayer. Though the Latin form that was traditionally used in Western Europe has debita (debts), most English-speaking Christians (except Presbyterians and others of the Reformed tradition), use trespasses. The Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland as well as the Congregational denomination follow the version found in Matthew 6 in the Authorized Version (known also as the King James Version), which in the prayer uses the words "debts" and "debtors".

Roman Catholics usually do not add the doxology, "For Thine is the kingdom, power, and glory, forever and ever." However, this doxology, in the form "For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours, now and for ever", is used in the Catholic Mass, separated from the Lord's Prayer by a prayer, spoken or sung by the priest, that elaborates on the final petition, "Deliver us from evil." In the 1975 ICEL translation, this prayer reads: "Deliver us, Lord, from every evil, and grant us peace in our day. In your mercy keep us free from sin and protect us from all anxiety as we wait in joyful hope for the coming of our Savior, Jesus Christ."

All these versions are based on the text in Matthew, rather than Luke, of the prayer given by Jesus:

(KJV)

After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in Heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.

(KJV)

And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in Heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in Heaven, so in earth. Give us day by day our daily bread. And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.

Analysis

Subheadings use 1662 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) (see above)

"Our Father, which art in Heaven"

Together, the first two words — Our Father — are a title used elsewhere in the New Testament, as well as in Jewish literature, to refer to God.

The opening pronoun of Matthew's version of the prayer — our — is plural, which would be a strong indication that the prayer was intended for communal, rather than private, worship.

"Hallowed be thy Name"

Having opened, the prayer begins in the same manner as the Kaddish, hallowing the name of God, and then going on to express hope that God's will and kingdom will happen. In Judaism the name of God is of extreme importance, and honouring the name central to piety. Names were seen not simply as labels, but as true reflections of the nature and identity of what they referred to. So, the prayer that God's name be hallowed was seen as equivalent to hallowing God himself. "Hallowed be" is in the passive voice and so does not indicate who is to do the hallowing. One interpretation is that it is a call for all believers to honour God's name. Those who see the prayer as primarily eschatological understand the prayer to be an expression of desire for the end times, when God's name, in the view of those saying the prayer, will be universally honoured.

"Thy kingdom come"

The request for God's kingdom to come is usually interpreted as a reference to the belief, common at the time, that a Messiah figure would bring about a Kingdom of God. The coming of God's Kingdom is seen as a divine gift to be prayed for, not a human achievement. Some scholars have argued that this prayer is pre-Christian and was not designed for specifically Christian interpretation. Many evangelicals see it as quite the opposite — a command to spread Christianity.

"Thy will be done, in earth as it is in heaven"

The prayer follows with an expression of hope for God's will to be done. Some see the expression of hope as an addendum to assert a request for earth to be under direct and manifest divine command. Others see it as a call on people to submit to God and his teachings. In the Gospels, these requests have the added clarification in earth, as it is in heaven, an ambiguous phrase in Greek which can either be a simile (i.e., make earth like heaven), or a couple (i.e., both in heaven and earth), though simile is the most significant common interpretation.

"Give us this day our daily bread"

The more personal requests break from the similarity to the Kaddish. The first concerns daily bread. The meaning of the word normally translated as daily, ἐπιούσιος epiousios, is obscure. The word is almost a hapax legomenon, occurring only in Luke and Matthew's versions of the Lord's Prayer. (It was once mistakenly thought to be found also in an Egyptian accounting book.). Daily bread appears to be a reference to the way God provided manna to the Israelites each day while they were in the wilderness, as in . Since they could not keep any manna overnight, they had to depend on God to provide anew each morning. Etymologically epiousios seems to be related to the Greek words epi, meaning on,over,at,against and ousia, meaning substance. It is translated as supersubstantialem in the Vulgate and accordingly as supersubstantial in the Douay-Rheims Bible (). Early writers connected this to Eucharistic transubstantiation. Some modern Protestant scholars tend to reject this connection on the presumption that Eucharistic practise and the doctrine of transubstantiation both developed later than Matthew was written. Epiousios can also be understood as existence, i.e., bread that was fundamental to survival. In the era, bread was the most important food for survival. However, scholars of linguistics consider this rendering unlikely since it would violate standard rules of word formation. Koine Greek had several far more common terms for the same idea. Some interpret epiousios as meaning for tomorrow, as in the wording used by the Gospel of the Nazoraeans for the prayer. The common translation as "daily" is conveniently close in meaning to the other two possibilities as well. Those Christians who read the Lord's Prayer as eschatological view epiousios as referring to the second coming — reading for tomorrow (and bread) in a metaphorical sense. Most scholars disagree, particularly since Jesus is portrayed throughout Luke and Matthew as caring for everyday needs for his followers, particularly in the bread-related miracles that are recounted.

"And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us"

After the request for bread, Matthew and Luke diverge slightly. Matthew continues with a request for debts to be forgiven in the same manner as people forgive those who have debts against them. Luke, on the other hand, makes a similar request about sins being forgiven in the manner of debts being forgiven between people. The word "debts" (ὀφειλήματα) does not necessarily mean financial obligations as shown by the use of the verbal form of the same word (ὀφείλετε) in passages such as . In Aramaic the word for debt is also used to mean sin. This difference between Luke's and Matthew's wording could be explained by the original form of the prayer having been in Aramaic. The generally accepted interpretation is thus that the request is for forgiveness of sin, not of supposed loans granted by God. But some groups read it as a condemnation of all forms of lending. Asking for forgiveness from God was a staple of Jewish prayers. It was also considered proper for individuals to be forgiving of others, so the sentiment expressed in the prayer would have been a common one of the time.

"And lead us not into temptation"

Interpretations of the penultimate petition of the prayer — not to be led by God into peirasmos — vary considerably. The range of meanings of the Greek word "πειρασμός" (peirasmos) is illustrated in The New Testament Greek Lexicon In different contexts it can mean temptation, testing, trial, experiment. Traditionally it has been translated "temptation" and, in spite of the statement in that God tests/tempts nobody, some see the petition in the Lord's Prayer as implying that God leads people to sin. There are generally two arguments for interpreting the word as meaning here a "test of character". First, it may be an eschatological appeal against unfavourable Last Judgment, though nowhere in literature of the time, not even in the New Testament, is the term peirasmos connected to such an event. The other argument is that it acts as a plea against hard tests described elsewhere in scripture, such as those of Job. It can also be read as: "LORD, do not let us be led (by ourselves, by others, by Satan) into temptations". Since it follows shortly after a plea for daily bread (i.e. material sustenance), it can be seen as referring to not being caught up in the material pleasures given.

"But deliver us from evil"

Translations and scholars are divided over whether the evil mentioned in the final petition refers to evil in general or the devil in particular. The original Greek, as well as the Latin version, could be either of neuter (evil in general) or masculine (the evil one) gender. In earlier parts of the Sermon on the Mount, in which Matthew's version of the prayer appears, the term is used to refer to general evil. Later parts of Matthew refer to the devil when discussing similar issues. However, the devil is never referred to as the evil one in any Aramaic sources. While John Calvin accepted the vagueness of the term's meaning, he considered that there is little real difference between the two interpretations, and that therefore the question is of no real consequence.

"For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen "

The doxology of the prayer is not contained in Luke's version, nor is it present in the earliest manuscripts of Matthew. The first known use of the doxology, in a less lengthy form ("for yours is the power and the glory forever"), as a conclusion for the Lord's Prayer (in a version slightly different from that of Matthew) is in the Didache, 8:2. There are at least ten different versions of the doxology in early manuscripts of Matthew before it seems to have standardised. Jewish prayers at the time had doxological endings. The doxology may have been originally appended to the Lord's Prayer for use during congregational worship. If so, it could be based on . Most scholars do not consider it part of the original text of Matthew, and modern translations do not include it, mentioning it only in footnotes. Latin Rite Roman Catholics do not use it when reciting the Lord's Prayer, but it has been included as an independent item, not as part of the Lord's Prayer, in the 1970 revision of the Mass. It is attached to the Lord's Prayer in Eastern Christianity (including Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches) and Protestantism. A minority, generally fundamentalists, posit that the doxology was so important that early manuscripts of Matthew neglected it due to its obviousness, though several other quite obvious things are mentioned in the Gospels.

Use as a language comparison tool

Since the publication of the Mithridates books, translations of the prayer have often been used for a quick comparison of languages, primarily because most earlier philologists were Christians, and very often priests. Due to missionary activity, one of the first texts to be translated between many languages has historically been the Bible, and so to early scholars the most readily available text in any particular language would most likely be a partial or total translation of the Bible. For example, the only extant text in Gothic, a language crucial in the history of Indo-European languages, is Codex Argenteus, the incomplete Bible translated by Wulfila.

This tradition has been opposed recently from both the angle of religious neutrality and of practicality: the forms used in the Lord's Prayer (many commands) are not very representative of common discourse. Philologists and language enthusiasts have proposed other texts such as the Babel text (also part of the Bible) or the story of the North Wind and the Sun. In Soviet language sciences the complete works of Lenin were often used for comparison, as they were translated to most languages in the 20th century.

Latin version

The Latin version of this prayer has had cultural and historical importance for most regions where English is spoken. The text used in the liturgy (Mass, Liturgy of the Hours, etc.) differs slightly from that found in the Vulgate and probably pre-dates it.

The doxology associated with the Lord's Prayer is found in four Vetus Latina manuscripts, only two of which give it in its entirety. The other surviving manuscripts of the Vetus Latina Gospels do not have the doxology. The Vulgate translation also does not include it, thus agreeing with critical editions of the Greek text.

In the Latin Rite liturgies, this doxology is never attached to the Lord's Prayer. Its only use in the Roman Rite liturgy is in the Mass as revised after the Second Vatican Council. It is there placed not immediately after the Lord's Prayer, but instead after the priest's prayer, Libera nos, quaesumus..., elaborating on the final petition, Libera nos a malo (Deliver us from evil).

Aramaic version

The Lord's Prayer survives in the Aramaic language in the form given to it in the Syriac Peshitta version of the New Testament. The dialect of Syriac in which it is written is not the dialect that would have been spoken by Jesus of Nazareth or his followers. Therefore, claims that the Peshitta Lord's Prayer is "the original" are incorrect: it too is derived from the Greek text of .

A very large number of "translations" of the "Aramaic Lord's Prayer" that stem from various mystic traditions and have little or no relation to the actual meaning of the Aramaic text are circulating on the Internet. Many of them expound various New Age themes and interpret the prayer far beyond what scholars and linguists believe is possible or honest.

In 1997 Christian Bollmann has performed a musical version for Festspiele Balver Höhle.

Relation to Jewish prayer

There are similarities between the Lord's Prayer and both Biblical and post-Biblical material in Jewish prayer. "Hallowed be thy name" is reflected in the Kaddish. "Lead us not into sin" is echoed in the "morning blessings" of Jewish prayer. A blessing said by some Jewish communities after the evening Shema includes a phrase quite similar to the opening of the Lord's Prayer: "Our God in heaven, hallow thy name, and establish thy kingdom forever, and rule over us for ever and ever. Amen. "

References

See also

Books

  • Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
  • Augsburger, Myron. Matthew. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1982.
  • Barclay, William. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume 1 Chapters 1–10. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1975.
  • Beare, Francis Wright. The Gospel According to Matthew. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1981.
  • Filson, Floyd V. A Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: A. & C. Black, 1960.
  • Fowler, Harold. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume One. Joplin: College Press, 1968
  • France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
  • Hendriksen, William. The Gospel of Matthew. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1976
  • Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
  • "Lilies in the Field." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Lewis, Jack P. The Gospel According to Matthew. Austin, Texas: R.B. Sweet, 1976..
  • Luz, Ulrich. Matthew 1–7: A Commentary. trans. Wilhlem C. Linss. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1989.
  • Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to Matthew. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975

External links

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