LORAN was an American development of the British GEE radio navigation system (used during World War II). While GEE had a range of about 400 miles (644 km), early LORAN systems had a range of 1,200 miles (1,930 km). LORAN systems were built during World War II and were used extensively by the US Navy and Royal Navy. The RAF also used LORAN on raids beyond the range of GEE. It was originally known as "LRN" for Loomis radio navigation, after millionaire and physicist Alfred Lee Loomis, who invented LORAN and played a crucial role in military research and development during WWII
The navigational method provided by LORAN is based on the principle of the time difference between the receipt of signals from a pair of radio transmitters. A given constant time difference between the signals from the two stations can be represented by a hyperbolic line of position (LOP). If the positions of the two synchronized stations are known, then the position of the receiver can be determined as being somewhere on a particular hyperbolic curve where the time difference between the received signals is constant. (In ideal conditions, this is proportionally equivalent to the difference of the distances from the receiver to each of the two stations.)
By itself, with only two stations, the 2-dimensional position of the receiver cannot be fixed. A second application of the same principle must be used, based on the time difference of a different pair of stations (in practice, one of the stations in the second pair may also be—and frequently is—in the first pair). By determining the intersection of the two hyperbolic curves identified by the application of this method, a geographic fix can be determined.
In the case of LORAN, one station remains constant in each application of the principle, the master, being paired up separately with two other slave, or secondary, stations. Given two secondary stations, the time difference (TD) between the master and first secondary identifies one curve, and the time difference between the master and second secondary identifies another curve, the intersections of which will determine a geographic point in relation to the position of the three stations. These curves are often referred to as "TD lines."
In practice, LORAN is implemented in integrated regional arrays, or chains, consisting of one master station and at least two (but often more) secondary (or slave) stations, with a uniform "group repetition interval" (GRI) defined in microseconds. The master station transmits a series of pulses, then pauses for that amount of time before transmitting the next set of pulses.
The secondary stations receive this pulse signal from the master, then wait a preset amount of milliseconds, known as the secondary coding delay, to transmit a response signal. In a given chain, each secondary's coding delay is different, allowing for separate identification of each secondary's signal (though in practice, modern LORAN receivers do not rely on this for secondary identification).
Every LORAN chain in the world uses a unique Group Repetition Interval, the number of which, when multiplied by ten, gives how many microseconds pass between pulses from a given station in the chain (in practice, the JAW delays in many, but not all, chains are multiples of 100 microseconds). LORAN chains are often referred to by this designation, e.g. GRI 9960, the designation for the LORAN chain serving the Northeast U.S.
Due to the nature of hyperbolic curves, it is possible for a particular combination of a master and two slave stations to result in a "grid" where the axes intersect at acute angles. For ideal positional accuracy, it is desirable to operate on a navigational grid where the axes are as orthogonal as possible -- i.e., the grid lines are at right angles to each other. As the receiver travels through a chain, a certain selection of secondaries whose TD lines initially formed a near-orthogonal grid can become a grid that is significantly skewed. As a result, the selection of one or both secondaries should be changed so that the TD lines of the new combination are closer to right angles. To allow this, nearly all chains provide at least three, and as many as five, secondaries.
Where available, common marine navigational charts include visible representations of TD lines at regular intervals over water areas. The TD lines representing a given master-slave pairing are printed with distinct colors, and include an indication of the specific time difference indicated by each line.
Due to interference and propagation issues suffered by low-frequency signals from land features and man-made structures the accuracy of the LORAN signal is degraded considerably in inland areas. (See Limitations.) As a result, nautical charts will not print any TD lines in those areas, to prevent reliance on LORAN for navigation in such areas.
Traditional LORAN receivers generally display the time difference between each pairing of the master and one of the two selected secondary stations. These numbers can then be found in relation to those of the TD lines printed on the chart.
Modern LORAN receivers display latitude and longitude instead of time differences, and with improved accuracy.
LORAN-C transmitters operate at peak powers of 100 kilowatts to four megawatts, comparable to longwave broadcasting stations. Most LORAN-C transmitters use mast radiators insulated from ground with heights between 190 and 220 metres. The masts are inductively lengthened and fed by a loading coil (see: electrical lengthening). A well known-example of a station using such an antenna is LORAN-C transmitter Rantum.
LORAN-C transmitters with output powers of 1000 kW and higher sometimes use supertall mast radiators (see below). Other high power LORAN-C stations, like LORAN-C transmitter George, use four T-antennas mounted on four guyed masts arranged in a square. All LORAN-C antennas radiate an omnidirectional pattern. Unlike longwave broadcasting stations, LORAN-C stations cannot use backup antennas. The slightly different physical location of a backup antenna would produce Lines of Position different from those of the primary antenna.
LORAN suffers from electronic effects of weather and the ionospheric effects of sunrise and sunset. The most accurate signal is the groundwave that follows the Earth's surface, ideally over seawater. At night the indirect skywave, bent back to the surface by the ionosphere, is a problem as multiple signals may arrive via different paths. The ionosphere's reaction to sunrise and sunset accounts for the particular disturbance during those periods. Magnetic storms have serious effects as with any radio based system.
Loran uses ground based transmitters that only cover certain regions. Coverage is quite good in North America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim.
The absolute accuracy of Loran-C varies from 0.1 to 0.25 nautical miles. Repeatable accuracy is much greater, typically from 60 to 300 feet.
LORAN-A was used in the Vietnam War for navigation by large United States aircraft (C-124, C-130, C-97, C-123, HU-16, etc). A common airborne receiver of that era was the R-65/APN-9 which combined the receiver and cathode ray tube (CRT) indicator into a single relatively lightweight unit replacing the two larger, separate receiver and indicator units which comprised the predecessor APN-4 system. The APN-9 and APN-4 systems found wide post-World War II use on fishing vessels in the U.S. They were cheap, accurate and plentiful. The main drawback for use on boats was their need for aircraft power, 115 VAC at 400 Hz. This was solved initially by the use of rotary inverters, typically 28 VDC input and 115 VAC output at 400 Hz. The inverters were big and loud and were power hogs. In the 1960s, several firms such as Topaz and Linear Systems marketed solid state inverters specifically designed for these surplus LORAN-A sets. The availability of solid state inverters that used 12 VDC input opened up the surplus LORAN-A sets for use on much smaller vessels which typically did not have the 24-28 VDC systems found on larger vessels. The solid state inverters were very power efficient and widely replaced the more trouble prone rotary inverters.
LORAN-A saved many lives by allowing offshore boats in distress to give accurate position reports. It also guided many boats whose owners could not afford radar safely into fog bound harbors or around treacherous offshore reefs. The low price of surplus LORAN-A receivers (often under $150) meant that owners of many small fishing vessels could afford this equipment, thus greatly enhancing safety. Surplus LORAN-A equipment, which was common on commercial fishing boats, was rarely seen on yachts. The unrefined cosmetic appearance of the surplus equipment was probably a deciding factor.
Pan American World Airways used APN 9s in early Boeing 707 operations. The World War II surplus APN-9 looked out of place in the modern 707 cockpit, but was needed. There is an R65A APN-9 set displayed in the museum at SFO Airport, painted gold. It was a retirement present to an ex Pan Am captain.
An elusive final variant of the APN 9 set was the APN 9A. A USAF technical manual (with photographs and schematics) shows that it had the same case as the APN-9 but a radically different front panel and internal circuitry on the non-RF portions. The APN-9A had vacuum tube flipflop digital divider circuits so that TDs (time delays) between the master and slave signal could be selected on front panel rotary decade switches. The older APN-9 set required the user to perform a visual count of crystal oscillator timing marker pips on the CRT and add them up to get a TD. The APN 9A did not make it into widespread military use, if it was used at all, but it did exist and represented a big advance in military LORAN-A receiver technology.
In the 1970s one U.S. company, SRD Labs in Campbell, California, made modern LORAN-A sets including one that was completely automatic with a digital TD readout on the CRT, and autotracking so that TDs were continuously updated. Other SRD models required the user to manually align the master and slave signals on the CRT and then a phase locked loop would keep them lined up and provide updated TD readouts thereafter. These SRD LORAN-A sets would track only one pair of stations, giving you just one LOP (line of position). If one wanted a continuously updated position (two TDs giving intersecting LOPs) rather than just a single LOP, one needed two sets.
Long after LORAN-A broadcasts were terminated, commercial fishermen still referred to old LORAN-A TDs, e.g., "I am on the 4100 [microsecond] line in 35 fathoms", referring to a position outside of Bodega Bay. Many LORAN-C sets incorporated LORAN A TD converters so that a LORAN-C set could be used to navigate to a LORAN-A TD defined line or position.
In recent years, LORAN-C has been used in Europe to send differential GPS and other messages, employing a similar method of transmission known as EUROFIX.
As LORAN systems are government maintained and operated, their continued existence is subject to public policy. With the evolution of other electronic navigation systems, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), funding for existing systems is not always assured.
Critics, who have called for the elimination of the system, state that the Loran system has too few users, lacks cost-effectiveness, and that GNSS signals are superior to Loran. Supporters of continued and improved Loran operation note that Loran uses a strong signal, which is difficult to jam, and that Loran is an independent, dissimilar, and complementary system to other forms of electronic navigation, which helps ensure availability of navigation signals.
Recently both the US and European governments have announced political decisions to maintain and upgrade their Loran systems.
|Afif||Saudi-Arabia||Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)/Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)|
|Al Khamasin||Saudi-Arabia||Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)/Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)|
|Al Muwassam||Saudi-Arabia||Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)/Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)|
|Angissq||Greenland||shutdown on December 31, 1994||used until July 27, 1964 a 411.48 metre tower|
|Anthorn||UK||Lessay (GRI 6731)||replacement for transmitter Rugby|
|Ash Shayk||Saudi-Arabia||Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)/Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)|
|Attu, Alaska||United States||North Pacific (GRI 9990)/Russian-American (GRI 5980)|
|Balasore||India||Calcutta (GRI 5543)|
|Baudette, Minnesota||United States||North Central U.S. (GRI 8290)/Great Lakes (GRI 8970)|
|Berlevåg||Norway||Bø (GRI 7001)|
|Billamora||India||Bombay (GRI 6042)|
|Boise City, Oklahoma||United States||Great Lakes (GRI 8970)/South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)|
|Bø, Vesterålen||Norway||Bø (GRI 7001)/Eiði (GRI 9007)|
|Cambridge Bay||Canada||shut-down||free-standing lattice tower, used as NDB|
|Cape Race||Canada||Canadian East Coast (GRI 5930)/Newfoundland East Coast (GRI 7270)||used a 411.48 metre tall tower until February 2, 1993, uses now a 260.3 metre tall tower|
|Caribou, Maine||United States||Canadian East Coast (GRI 5930) / Northeast U.S. (GRI 9960)|
|Carolina Beach, North Carolina||United States||Northeast US (GRI 9960)/ Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)|
|Chongzuo||China||China South Sea (GRI 6780)|
|Comfort Cove||Canada||Newfoundland East Coast (GRI 7270)|
|Dana, Indiana||United States||Great Lakes (GRI 8970)/ Northeast US (GRI 9960)|
|Dhrangadhra||India||Bombay (GRI 6042)|
|Diamond Harbor||India||Calcutta (GRI 5543)|
|Eiði||Faroe Islands||Ejde (GRI 9007)|
|Estartit||Spain||Mediterranean Sea (GRI 7990); shut down|
|Fallon, Nevada||United States||U.S. West Coast (GRI 9940)|
|Fox Harbour||Canada||Newfoundland East Coast (GRI 7270)/ Canadian East Coast (GRI 5930)|
|George, Washington||United States||Canadian West Coast (GRI 5990)/ U.S. West Coast (GRI 9940)|
|Gesashi||Japan||East Asia (GRI 9930)/ North West Pacific (GRI 8930)|
|Gillette, Wyoming||United States||South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)/ North Central U.S. (GRI 8290)|
|Grangeville, Louisiana||United States||South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)/ Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)|
|Havre, Montana||United States||North Central U.S. (GRI 8290)|
|Hellissandur||Iceland||shut down on December 31, 1994||411.48 metre tall tower, now used for longwave broadcasting of RÚV on 189 kHz|
|Helong||China||China North Sea (GRI 7430)|
|Hexian||China||China South Sea (GRI 6780)|
|Jan Mayen||Norway||Bø (GRI 7001)/ Ejde (GRI 9007)|
|Johnston Island||United States||shut-down|
|Iwo Jima||Japan||shut down in September 1993, dismantled||used a 411.48 metre tall tower|
|Jupiter, Florida||United States||Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)|
|Kargaburan||Turkey||Mediterranean Sea (GRI 7990); shut down|
|Kwang Ju||South Korea||East Asia (GRI 9930)|
|Lampedusa||Italy||Mediterranean Sea (GRI 7990); shut down|
|Las Cruces, New Mexico||United States||South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)|
|Lessay||France||Lessay (GRI 6731) / Sylt (GRI 7499)|
|Loop Head||Ireland||was planned (GRI 6731 and 9007), but never operational|
|Malone, Florida||United States||Great Lakes (GRI 8970) / Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)|
|Minamitorishima||Japan||North West Pacific (GRI 8930)||used until 1985 a 411.48 metre tall tower|
|Nantucket, Massachusetts||United States||Canadian East Coast (GRI 5930) / Northeast U.S. (GRI 9960)|
|Narrow Cape, Alaska||United States||North Pacific (GRI 9990) / Gulf of Alaska (GRI 7960)|
|Niijima||Japan||North West Pacific (GRI 8930) / East Asia (GRI 9930)|
|Patpur||India||Calcutta (GRI 5543)|
|Pohang||South Korea||North West Pacific (GRI 8930) / East Asia (GRI 9930)|
|Port Clarence, Alaska||United States||Gulf of Alaska (GRI 7960)/North Pacific (GRI 9990)||uses a 411.48 metre tall tower|
|Port Hardy||Canada||Canadian West Coast (GRI 5990)|
|Rantum||Germany||Sylt (GRI 7499)/ Lessay (GRI 6731)|
|Raymondville, Texas||United States||South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)/ Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)|
|Raoping||China||China South Sea (GRI 6780)/ China East Sea (GRI 8930)|
|Rongcheng||China||China North Sea (GRI 7430)/ China East Sea (GRI 8930)|
|Rugby||UK||experimental (GRI 6731); shut down at the end of July 2007|
|Saint Paul, Alaska||United States||North Pacific (GRI 9990)|
|Salwa||Saudi Arabia||Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)/Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)|
|Searchlight, Nevada||United States||U.S. West Coast (GRI 9940)/South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)|
|Sellia Marina||Italy||Mediterranean Sea (GRI 7990); shut down|
|Seneca, New York||United States||Great Lakes (GRI 8970)/Northeast U.S. (GRI 9960)|
|Shoal Cove, Alaska||United States||Canadian West Coast (GRI 5990)/Gulf of Alaska (GRI 7960)|
|Soustons||France||Lessay (GRI 6731)|
|Tok, Alaska||United States||Gulf of Alaska (GRI 7960)|
|Tokachibuto||Japan||Eastern Russia Chayka (GRI 7950)/ North West Pacific (GRI 8930)|
|Upolo Point, Hawaii||United States||shut-down|
|Værlandet||Norway||Sylt (GRI 7499)/ Ejde (GRI 9007)|
|Veraval||India||Bombay (GRI 6042)|
|Williams Lake||Canada||Canadian West Coast (GRI 5990)|
|Xuancheng||China||China North Sea (GRI 7430)/ China East Sea (GRI 8930)|
|Yap||Micronesia||shut down in 1987, dismantled||used a 304.8 metre tall tower|