Lola Montez

Lola Montez

[mon-tez, mon-tez]
Montez, Lola, 1818?-1861, Irish adventurer, whose original name was Marie Dolores Eliza Rosanna Gilbert. Her early marriage to an army officer soon ended in divorce. She adopted the name Lola Montez, claimed Spanish descent, and became a dancer. Her dancing was mediocre, but her beauty, extravagant charm, and adventures (in particular her affairs with Franz Liszt and Dumas père) were legendary. She gained sensational success and by 1846 became the mistress of King Louis I of Bavaria, who made her countess of Lansfeld. Her intervention in politics aroused antagonism and helped provoke the Revolution of 1848, when she was banished. She returned (1849) to England and remarried. In 1851 she toured the United States and after the death of her husband married P. P. Hull, a San Francisco newspaperman. After an Australian tour (1855-56), she returned to the United States. She died in New York City.

See biographies by A. Darling (1972), I. Ross (1972), and M. Ophuls (1986).

Eliza Rosanna Gilbert (February 17, 1821January 17, 1861), better known by the stage name Lola Montez, was an Irish-born dancer and actress who became famous as a Spanish dancer, courtesan and mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld.

Early life

Like many other aspects of her life, discrepant reports of her birth have been published. She was born in Grange, County Sligo in 1821, but Encyclopædia Britannica inaccurately claims that she was born in Limerick, Ireland in 1818. She was baptised at St Peter’s Church in Liverpool on 16 February 1823.

Lola's mother was Eliza (or Elizabeth) Oliver, an illegitimate daughter of Charles Silver Oliver, of Castle Oliver in County Limerick, Ireland. Lola's mother was 15 when she gave birth to her, a year after she married Lola's father, Ensign Edward Gilbert of the 25th Regiment.

In 1823 the Gilberts moved to India, where Edward's regiment had been dispatched. But, shortly after arrival, he died of cholera. Her mother, who was now 19, married another officer, Lieutenant Patrick Craigie, the following year. Craigie quickly came to care for Lola, but her spoilt and half-wild ways concerned him greatly.

Eventually, it was agreed she would be sent back to Britain to attend school, staying with Craigie's father in Montrose, Scotland, at first. But the "queer, wayward little Indian girl" quickly became known as a mischief-maker. On one occasion, she stuck flowers into the wig of an elderly man during a church service, on another, she ran through the streets naked.

At the age of 10, Lola was moved on again – this time to Sunderland. When her stepfather's older sister, Catherine Rae, set up a boarding school in Monkwearmouth with her husband, Lola joined them to continue her education.

Lola obviously made an impression on her teachers, as a Mr Grant, who taught art at the little school, was later to recall her as "an elegant and graceful child." He described her as having eyes of "excessive beauty", an "orientally dark" complexion and an air of "haughty ease". But he also revealed: "The violence and obstinacy of her temper gave too frequent cause of painful anxiety to her good kind aunt."

Lola's determination and temper were to become her trademarks. After all, whatever Lola wanted, Lola got. The little girl's stay in Sunderland lasted only a year, as she was then transferred to Bath for a more "sophisticated" education.

In 1837 sixteen-year-old Eliza eloped with Lieutenant Thomas James. The couple separated five years later, in Calcutta, and Eliza became a professional dancer under a stage name. Her London debut as "Lola Montez, the Spanish dancer" in June 1843 was successful, but she had been recognized as Mrs. James and a scandal arose over the imposture. The resulting notoriety hampered her career in England and she departed for the Continent, where she became famous more for her beauty and quick temper than for her dancing. At this time she was almost certainly accepting favours from a few wealthy men, and was regarded by many as a courtesan.

Life as a courtesan

She met and had an affair with Franz Liszt, who introduced her to the circle of George Sand, which was one of the most sophisticated and advanced in European society. (source: Langer) After performing in various European capitals, she settled in Paris, where she was accepted in the rather Bohemian literary society of the time, being acquainted with Alexandre Dumas, père, with whom she was rumoured to have had a dalliance. After the 1845 death of her lover, newspaperman Alexandre Dujarier, in a duel (unrelated to her), Paris lost much of its charm for Lola, and she departed in search of greener pastures.

In 1846, she arrived in Munich, where she was discovered by, and became the mistress of, Ludwig I of Bavaria. She soon began to use her influence on the king and this, coupled with her arrogant manner and outbursts of temper, made her unpopular with the local population, particularly after documents showing that she was hoping to become a naturalized Bavarian citizen and be elevated to the nobility were made public. Despite the opposition, Ludwig made her Countess of Landsfeld on his next birthday, August 25, 1847. The entertaining rumour that at the time they met Ludwig had asked her in public if her bosom was real, to which her response was to tear off enough of her garments and prove it is entirely unfounded, and the story only first appeared many decades after Lola's death. It seems likely that Ludwig's relationship with her contributed greatly to the fall from grace of the previously popular king. In 1848 under pressure from a growing revolutionary movement Ludwig abdicated, and Lola fled Bavaria, her career as a power behind the throne at an end.

After a sojourn in Switzerland, where she waited in vain for Ludwig to join her, she made one brief excursion to France and then removed to London in late 1848. There she met and quickly married George Trafford Heald, a young army cornet (cavalry officer) with a recent inheritance. But the terms of Lola's divorce from Thomas James did not permit of either spouse's remarriage while the other was living, and the beleaguered newlyweds were forced to flee the country to escape a bigamy action brought by Heald's scandalized maiden aunt. Mr. and Mrs. Heald resided for a time in France and in Spain, but within two years the tempestuous relationship was in tatters, and in 1851 Lola set off to make a new start in the United States, where she was surprisingly successful at first in rehabilitating her image.

From 1851 to 1853 she performed as a dancer and actress in the eastern United States, then arrived at San Francisco in May 1853. There she married Patrick Hull, a local newspaperman, in July and moved to Grass Valley, California, in August. This marriage failed shortly after, and Montez remained in Grass Valley at her little house for nearly two years. The restored Home of Lola Montez went on to become California Historical Landmark No. 292.

In June 1855, she departed for a tour of Australia to resume her career by entertaining miners at the gold diggings during the gold-rush of the 1850s arriving at Sydney on August 16, 1855.

Historian Michael Cannon claims that "In September 1855 she performed her erotic Spider Dance at the Theatre Royal in Melbourne, raising her skirts so high that the audience could see she wore no underclothing at all (actually a salacious rumour). Next day the Argus thundered that her performance was 'utterly subversive to all ideas of public morality'". Respectable families ceased to attend the theatre, which began to show heavy losses.” At Castlemaine in April 1856, she was “rapturously encored” after her Spider Dance in front of 400 diggers (including members of the Municipal Council who had adjourned their meeting early to attend the performance), but drew the wrath of the audience by insulting them following some mild heckling.

She earned further notoriety in Ballarat when, after reading a bad review in The Ballarat Times, she attacked the editor, Henry Seekamp with a whip. The "Lola Montes Polka" composed by Albert Denning was later rumoured to have been inspired by this event, but as the song was published in 1855 and the incident with Seekamp occurred months later in February 1856, this is scarcely probable. She departed for San Francisco on May 22, 1856, having had her fill of the turbulent Antipodes. She later engaged in lecture tours and finally moved to New York, where she lived out her last days.

Later life

On June 30, 1860, she suffered a stroke and was partially paralyzed for some time. In mid-December she had recovered enough to walk with a slight limp and went out for a stroll in the cold weather. Her life as a courtesan was over, and her money was by now gone. Lola began to seek out the word of God. In her dying days, she was cared for by a priest - though she reportedly determined first that he was not a Jesuit, having many bad memories of that order- not least from some of those who had held key posts at Ludwig's court.

She contracted pneumonia, lingering for nearly a month before dying one month short of her fortieth birthday. She is buried in Green-Wood Cemetery, in Brooklyn, New York where her tombstone states: "Mrs. Eliza Gilbert / Died Jan. 17, 1861;" it also reads that she was 42 at time of death.

Lola Montez in fiction

Montez was portrayed by Martine Carol in the 1955 film Lola Montès directed by Max Ophüls and co-starring Peter Ustinov and Oskar Werner.

Montez also appears in Royal Flash by George MacDonald Fraser, where she has a brief affair with Harry Flashman. She is also a character in the film of the same name, in which she is played by Florinda Bolkan.

Montez is featured prominently in the final installment (Spider Dance) of the Irene Adler mystery series by Carole Nelson Douglas. Montez is rumored to be the title character's mother.

She has been portrayed by Carmen D'Antonio in Golden Girl (1951), Sheila Darcy in Wells Fargo (1937), Yvonne De Carlo in Black Bart (1948), and Rita Moreno in an episode of the 1950s TV show Tales of Wells Fargo.

In one of J.B. Priestley's last fictional works, The Pavilion of Masks, she is unmistakably the original for Cleo Torres, Spanish dancer and mistress of a German prince.

Montez was allegedly the inspiration for Jennifer Wilde's 1978 historical romance novel "Dare To Love," whose protagonist Elena Lopez is also woman passing herself off as Spanish who becomes an exotic dancer. In the book Elena has an affair with Franz Liszt, becomes friends with George Sand and has a friendship with the king of a small Germanic country obviously based on Ludwig I of Bavaria, then moves to California, all documented as having happened in Montez's life.


New International Encyclopedia identifies her as being Maria Dolores Eliza Rosanna Gilbert (?1818-1861), an adventuress. Her writings comprise The Arts of Beauty and Lectures (1858), the latter containing an autobiography.

Lola Montez has a lake named after her in the Tahoe National Forest in Nevada County, California. Take I-80 east from Sacramento and exit at Cisco Grove.

There is also a mountain named in her honor, Mount Lola. At 9,148', it is the highest point in Nevada County.


  • Bruce Seymour Lola Montez, a Life 1996 Yale University Press

Further reading

  • Leila Mackinlay, Spider dance: A novel based upon incidents in the life of Lola Montez
  • Nicholas Browne, Castle Oliver & the Oliver Gascoignes

External links

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