Definitions

logical unit 6.2

4-6-2

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, a 4-6-2 locomotive has four leading wheels (generally arranged in a leading truck), six coupled driving wheels and two trailing wheels (often but not always in a trailing truck). These locomotives are also known as Pacifics. On many railways, Pacific steam locomotives provided the motive power for express passenger trains throughout much of the early to mid 20th century before being replaced by diesel and electric locomotives and high speed trains.

Other equivalent classifications are:
UIC classification: 2C1 (also known as German classification and Italian classification)
French classification: 231
Turkish classification: 36
Swiss classification: 3/6

The equivalent UIC classifications are refined by 2'C'1' or 2'C1' depending on the mounting of the final axle.

History

The success of the 4-6-2 design can be attributed its four-wheel leading truck, which made for stability at speed; six driving wheels, which allowed for the application of more power than the earlier 4-4-2 "Atlantic" design; and a two-wheel trailing truck, which permitted the firebox to be behind the high driving wheels, allowing it to be both wide and deep. On a locomotive without a trailing truck, such as a 4-6-0 "ten wheeler", the designer is caught in a dilemma; the firebox can either fit between the driving wheels and be narrow and deep, or it can fit above the driving wheels and be wide and shallow.

New Zealand Railways (NZR) were the first major railway to purchase and operate 4-6-2 locomotives, in 1901 placing an order for 13 Q class locomotives with the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The NZR Chief Mechanical Engineer, A. L. Beattie, ordered the Q class as a locomotive with a large firebox that would be able to burn poor lignite coal from eastern South Island mines efficiently. While there were some examples of Pacifics built prior to 1901, these were rebuilds of 4-6-0s rather than true Pacifics built to take full advantage of the design. By 1915 the NZR had designed and built the first steam locomotive reputed to deliver 1 hp of power for every 100 lb of its weight, the AB class.

While the Pacific remained the major express passenger locomotive type on many railways, being built in the UK, for example, well into the 1950s, elaborations of the design were deemed necessary for certain situations. The most notable of these was the 4-6-4 "Hudson", which had a four-wheel trailing truck that permitted a larger firebox (though at the loss of adhesive weight); and the 4-8-2 "Mountain", which used an extra pair of driving wheels to deliver more power to the rails.

Origin of the name

The origin of the name "Pacific" is that the first locomotives of the type were designed and built for railways in New Zealand and consequently shipped from their manufacturer in the United States across the Pacific Ocean to New Zealand.

An alternative explanation of the name derives the term "Pacific" from early examples of the type that were built after the NZR Q class for the Missouri Pacific Railroad.

Regional variations:

Australasia

Australia

In the late 1920s, heavy Pacific locomotives were introduced by both South Australian Railways and Victorian Railways in response to increasingly heavy passenger trains and demand for faster services. Although similar in size, power, and top speed, the designs reflected different approaches. The SAR 600 class reflected contemporary American locomotive practice both in design features and appearance, with two large 24 × 28 in (610 x 710 mm) cylinders. The VR S class showed a strong British LNER influence, with three 20½ x 28 in (521 x 710 mm) cylinders, and Gresley conjugated valve gear driving the third (inside) cylinder.

The New South Wales Government Railways introduced the C38 class for express passenger service in 1943. These two-cylinder Pacifics had a free-steaming 245 psi boiler and were renowned for their performance. Class leader 3801 has achieved considerable fame in preservation, with notable feats such as a transcontinental journey from Sydney to Perth in 1970.

In the post-war era, Pacifics were also introduced on narrow-gauge Australian railways with the Tasmanian Railways M class and Queensland Railways BB18¼ class. BB18¼ 1089, built in 1956, was the last main-line steam locomotive built in Australia.

Midland Railway of Western Australia 1067 mm

This private railway which run north of Midland Junction had a length of 446 km during steam days. It had five Pacific type locomotives.

  • Midland Railway Nr.11 2C1-n2 Kitson 4878 / 1912 renumbered to 14
  • Midland Railway Nr.12 2C1-n2 Kitson 4879 / 1912 renumbered to 15
  • Midland Railway Nr.13 2C1-n2 Kitson 4880 / 1912 renumbered to 16
  • Midland Railway Nr.14 2C1-n2 Kitson 4884 / 1912 renumbered to 17
  • Midland Railway Nr.15 2C1-n2 Kitson 4885 / 1912 renumbered to 18

All were withdrawn from service in 1950s.

New South Wales Government Railways 1435 mm

New South Wales Government Railways was a latecomer in Pacific era on its standard gauge express passenger train service. Thirty Pacific type locomotives were built for NSWGR. They were among the finest looking steam locomotives which run in Australia. The first engines turned out during the World War Two. The last emerged into service in 1949.

  • C 3801 2C1-h2 Clyde Engineering Co 463 / 1943 Preserved
  • C 3802 2C1-h2 Clyde Engineering Co 464 / 1943 run 08.04.1943 - 12.01.1967 2.441.024 km
  • C 3803 2C1-h2 Clyde Engineering Co 465 / 1943
  • C 3804 2C1-h2 Clyde Engineering Co 466 / 1944
  • C 3805 2C1-h2 Clyde Engineering Co 474 / 1945
  • C 3806 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 158 / 1945
  • C 3807 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 159 / 1946
  • C 3808 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 160 / 1946
  • C 3809 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 161 / 1946
  • C 3810 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 162 / 1946
  • C 3811 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 163 / 1946
  • C 3812 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 164 / 1946
  • C 3813 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 165 / 1946
  • C 3814 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 166 / 1946
  • C 3815 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 167 / 1947
  • C 3816 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 168 / 1947
  • C 3817 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 169 / 1947
  • C 3818 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 170 / 1947
  • C 3819 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 171 / 1947
  • C 3820 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 172 / 1947 Preserved
  • C 3821 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 173 / 1948
  • C 3822 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 174 / 1947
  • C 3823 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 175 / 1948
  • C 3824 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 176 / 1948
  • C 3825 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 177 / 1948
  • C 3826 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 178 / 1948
  • C 3827 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 179 / 1948
  • C 3828 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 180 / 1949
  • C 3829 2C1-h2 Gardiff Works 181 / 1949
  • C 3830 2C1-h2 Eveleigh Works 182 / 1949 Preserved

South Australian Railways 1600 mm

South Australian Railways SAR owned twenty Pacific type locomotives. The first ten were part of larger order for thirty modern steam locomotives placed to Armstrong Whitworth in Great Britain in 1924. These class 600 Pacifics arrived to Adelaide in 1926 and all ten were placed into service the same year.

  • SAR 600 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 623 / 1925
  • SAR 601 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 624 / 1925
  • SAR 602 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 625 / 1925
  • SAR 603 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 626 / 1925
  • SAR 604 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 627 / 1925
  • SAR 605 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 628 / 1925
  • SAR 606 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 629 / 1925
  • SAR 607 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 630 / 1925
  • SAR 608 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 631 / 1925
  • SAR 609 2C1-h2 Armstrong Whitworth 632 / 1925

It was found that another lighter weight Pacific type locomotive was needed. Ten locomotives were built at Islington Works in 1936 - 1938.

  • SAR 620 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1936
  • SAR 621 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1936
  • SAR 622 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1936
  • SAR 623 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1936
  • SAR 624 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1937
  • SAR 625 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1937
  • SAR 626 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1937
  • SAR 627 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1937
  • SAR 628 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1938
  • SAR 629 2C1-h2 Islington Works - / 1938

Tasmanian Government Railways Gauge 1067 mm

Tasmanian Government Railways owned 14 Pacific type locomotives. The class was introduced in Tasmania when Australian locomotive building company Perry Engineering Co, Adelaide, Australia built four Pacific type locomotives class R1 - R4 to Tasmanian Government Railways. They were used mainly in passenger trains.

The next batch of Pacific type locomotives arrived to Tasmania in 1952. The British locomotive builder R.Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd delivered ten locomotives in 1951 for Tasmanian Government Railways. These locomotives class M 1 - M10 were used in all trains on major lines in northern Tasmania. In 1957 - 1958 four locomotives (then in worst mechanical condition ) had their driving wheels replaced by then surplus 1220 mm Garratt wheel sets. These four locomotives were reclassified class MA1 - MA4.

The use of steam locomotives declined in 1960s, but Pacific type locomotives were still used on Hobart suburban trains. Occasionally they hauled special tour trains. In 1964 three locomotives; M1, M2, and MA3 were stored (in serviceable condition ).

In 1971, when Tasmanian Government Railways had its Centerary celebrations six of ten locomotives were still in serviceable condition. These being; M3, M4, M5, M6, MA2 and MA4. The end came few months later when all were simultaneously withdrawn from service. M3 was later restored back to working order and it was hauling several years some suburban trains at Hobart area, being finally written off from service in October 1975. These 96,6 ton (in wotking order ) engines were much liked among the locomotive drivers.

List of TGR Pacific type locomotives: (locomotives shown by UIC standard ).

h = superheated. 2 = number of cylinders.

  • R1 2C1-h2 Perry - / 1923
  • R2 2C1-h2 Perry - / 1923
  • R3 2C1-h2 Perry - / 1923
  • R4 2C1-h2 Perry - / 1923
  • M1 2C1-h2 RS&H 7421 / 1951 rebuilt 1957 to MA2
  • M2 2C1-h2 RS&H 7422 / 1951 rebuilt 1958 to MA4
  • M3 2C1-h2 RS&H 7423 / 1951
  • M4 2C1-h2 RS&H 7424 / 1951
  • M5 2C1-h2 RS&H 7425 / 1951
  • M6 2C1-h2 RS&H 7426 / 1951 rebuilt 1957 to MA1
  • M7 2C1-h2 RS&H 7427 / 1951 renumbered to M1
  • M8 2C1-h2 RS&H 7428 / 1951 rebuilt 1958 to MA2
  • M9 2C1-h2 RS&H 7429 / 1951 renumbered to M6
  • M10 2C1-h2 RS&H 7430 / 1951 renumbered to M2

Preservation:

  • M1 Dervent Valley Railway, New Norfolk
  • M2 Tanfield Steam Railway, Gateshead upon Tyne, England
  • M3 Don River Railway, Devonport
  • M4 Don River Railway, Devonport
  • M5 Tasmanian Transport Museum, Glenorchy, Tasmania
  • M6 Bellarine Peninsula Railway, New Norfolk
  • MA1 Dervent Valley Railway, New Norfolk
  • MA2 Don River Railway, Devonport
  • MA3 Public Park, Margate
  • MA4 Don River Railway, Devonport

Victorian Government Railways 1600 mm

Victorian Government Railways VR had only four Pacific type locomotives on its locomotive roster.

  • S 300 2C1-h2 VR Newport Works - / 1928 "Matthew Flinders"
  • S 301 2C1-h2 VR Newport Works - / 1929 "Sir Thomas Mitchell"
  • S 302 2C1-h2 VR Newport Works - / 1929 "Edward Henty"
  • S 303 2C1-h2 VR Newport Works - / 1930 "C J La Trobe"

Sources used: Various numbers of Continental Railway Journal (New Series) Published by Continental Railway Cirle since November 1969.

New Zealand

The New Zealand Railways Department was the first in the world to order and operate Pacific type locomotives in the form of the Q class in 1901. Subsequent Pacific classes were the A class of 1906 and the AB class of 1915. Members of the AB class operated until 1969, two years before the end of steam locomotive operations in New Zealand.

Asia

Iraq

When the standard gauge Baghdad Railway was nearing its completion between Mosul and Tel Kotchek on Syrian border, Iraqi State Railways ordered from Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd, Newcastle upon Tyne and Darlington four handsome looking fully streamlined Pacific type locomotives to haul international Istambul - Baghdad Taurus Express on Iraqi soil. They were delivered in 1940. Unfortunately one locomotive (Nr 504 ) was lost en route, leaving only three to be delivered to Iraq.

  • IStR 501 2C1-h2 RS&H 6982 / 1940 "BAGDAD"
  • IStR 502 2C1-h2 RS&H 6983 / 1940 "EL MOSUL"
  • IStR 503 2C1-h2 RS&H 6984 / 1940 "EL BASRAH"
  • IStR 504 2C1-h2 RS&H 6965 / 1940 "KIRKUK"

The remaining three locomotives were renumbered after World War Two to Numbers 1501 - 1503. They were withdrawn from service in 1960s.

Source: R.Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd Works List compiled by Dr. Ing.Bernhard Schmeiser.

For more reading: Hugh Hughes: Middle East Railways Published by Continental Railway Circle 1981.

Malaya / Malesia

The metre (1000 mm) gauge Malayan Railway was amongst the earliest railways in Asia to adopt the Pacific type locomotives, sixty engines of the Class H being built between 1907 - 1914. With a small volume of highly rated freight traffic it was possible to adopt standard engines for both passenger and freight services. Three coupled axles were enough to move the trains at moderate speeds over the whole Malayan rail network. As a result of experience gained with subsequent classes of Pacific type locomotives the final design of Malayan Pacific locomotives was designed and 68 engines being eventually built. They had bar frames, steel fireboxes and the three cylinders 13"x24" (330x610 mm). Driving wheels had 54" diameteter (1372 mm. Heating surface of the boiler was of which was superheating surface. Grate area was . Total weight in working order was 60.5 tons. Maximum axle load was 12.9 tons. Maximum speed in ordinary service was 50 mph (80 kph). Three cylinders were provided with rotary cam poppet valves, the camshaft being divided to two parts, independently driven from each side of the engine. This avoided complete immobilization in case of breakdown on a long stretch of single track. These locomotives were all converted to burn oil fuel. During World War Two, after the fall of Singapore the Japanese Southern Army Railway Engineering Troops transferred a number of older Malayan Pacifics to operate their 471 km (292.7 miles) Taimen Rensetsu Tetsudo, the Thailand - Burma Railway. Some Pacifics were not returned to Malaya after the war but stayed in Thailand. When the rail connection was provided between Malayan and Siamese railways the Pacifics were common sight at the head of "Singapore" and "Bangkok" expresses as well as on the other passenger trains in domestic Malayan service. After the arrival of the main line diesel electric locomotives in the latter part of the 1950 the Pacifics lost all important trains and were transferred to less important trains. Many survived up the end of Malayan steam traction in 1970s.

Builder details:

  • H1 72 - 78 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4425 - 4432 / 1906
  • H1 79 - 82 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Nasmyth Wilson 839 - 842 / 1908
  • H1 88 - 98 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4569 - 4579 / 1908
  • H2 103 - 106 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4835 - 4838 / 1911
  • H2 107 - 112 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4866 - 4871 / 1912
  • H2 115 - 117 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4875 - 4877 / 1912
  • H2 118 - 121 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Stephenson] 3502 - 3505 / 1913
  • H2 131 - 134 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Nasmyth Wilson 833 - 836 / 1908
  • H2 135 - 140 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4955 - 4959 / 1913
  • H2 141 - 144 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4960 - 4963 / 1913
  • H3 162 - 166 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 5015 - 5019 / 1914
  • I1 182 - 185 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 5159 - 5162 / 1918
  • I1 186 - 201 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 22505 - 22520 / 1919
  • Q1 202 - 207 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Baldwin 51914 - 51957 / 1920
  • Q1 208 - 209 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Baldwin 51991 - 51992 / 1920
  • Q1 210 - 213 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Baldwin 52018 - 52021 / 1920
  • L1 214 - 233 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 5300 - 5319 / 1921 -> 531.01-20
  • K1 153" - 159" 2C1-h2 17"x24" 54 Beyer Peacock 6373 - 6379 / 1927 -> 541.01-07
  • K2 151" - 152" 2C1-h2 17"x24" 54 Stephenson 4013 - 4014 / 1927 -> 542.01-02
  • K2 160" - 161" 2C1-h2 17"x24" 54 Stephenson 4015 - 4016 / 1927 -> 542.03-04
  • S1 237 - 239 2C1-h3 (3)17"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 23679 - 23681 / 1928 -> 551.01-03
  • S2 240 - 247 2C1-h3 (3)17"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 23904 - 23911 / 1929 -> 552.01-08
  • S3 248 - 252 2C1-h3 (3)17"x24" 54" Beyer Peacock 6721 - 6725 / 1931 -> 553.01-05
  • O1 60" - 70" 2C1-h3 (3)12 1/2"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 24419 - 24429 / 1938 -> 561.01-11
  • O2 71" - 76" 2C1-h3 (3)12 1/2"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 25508 - 24513 / 1939 -> 562.01-06
  • O3 77" - 80" 2C1-h3 (3)13"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 24570 - 24573 / 1939 -> 563.01-03
  • O3 81" - 87" 2C1-h3 (3)13"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 24574 - 24580 / 1940 -> 563.04-11
  • O4 564.01 - 564.40 (3)13"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 25756 - 27595 / 1946

Source: Unpublished Locomomotive list of Malayan Steam Locomotives compiled from Kitson, Beyer Peacock, North British Locomotive Co, Nasmyth & Wilson, Stephenson, Baldwin and Vulcan Foundry Works Lists.

For more reading: Various Articles published in Continental Railway Journal.

Philippines

Manila Railroad Co. operated ten three cylinder simple expansion handsome Pacific type locomotives. They were built in United States by Baldwin to operate the main express trains out of Manila.

Builder details:

  • Baldwin 59698 - 59700 / 1926 2C1-h3 Manila Railroad Nr 141 - 143
  • Baldwin 60103 - 60105 / 1927 2C1-h3 Manila Railroad Nr 144 - 146
  • Baldwin 60946 - 60949 / 1929 2C1-h3 Manila Railroad Nr 147 - 150

These were amongst the finest looking modern 3 ft 6 in (1067mm) gauge locomotives which appeared to Asia. All were presumably destroyed during 1944 - 1945 battles in Luzon.

Source:Baldwin Works List.

Taiwan

Imperial China had to cede Taiwan as a result of the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) to Imperial Japan in 1895. The Official Japanese Annual Report of 1935 states (under title Colonial Railways Section II Taiwan:

It was not until the cession of the Island of Taiwan (Formosa) from the Chinese Government to Japan that the island began to enjoy railway facilities, for prior that time the only railroad existing was a small light railway between Keelung and Hsinchu built at the time of the Qing Dynasty of China. Soon after the cession the Governor-General of Taiwan established a plan, with approbation of the Diet, to build a standard Japanese gauge railway connecting Takao (Kaohsiung) with Keelung at the expense of 28.800.000 yen. The work of construction was started from both termini and finished in April 1908. This 429.3 mile (690.7 km) line now forms the trunk line in the island communication system.

The Imperial Taiwan Government Railway manages three workshops in the Island viz. one each at Taihoku (Taipei), Takao and Kwarenko. The last mentioned is for East Coast Line rolling stock.

The first Pacific type locomotives appeared to Taiwan in 1912 when ALCo-Rogers delivered three simple expansion superheated 470 x 610 1600 62.2 tons Pacfic type locomotives derived from Japanese State Railways saturated type 8900 delivered earlier by ALCo-Brooks to Japan to suit the Taiwanese conditions. They received numbers 200 - 202. One more locomotive number 203 was delivered in 1913. These locomotives started the Pacific era, which lasted more than sixty years in Taiwan. Later the ALCo Pacifics become class E 200. These American built Pacifics remained the only ones in the island up to 1935. They hauled most important passenger express pair of train between Taihoku and Takao. In 1935 five more Pacific type locomotives, this time standard Japanese State Railways class 55 Pacifics, were added to the locomotive stock numbered 551 - 555. In 1938 four more were delivered numbered 556 - 559. When the Pacific War started on December 7, 1941 there were only 13 Pacific type locomotives working in Taiwan. The increasing war time traffic demanded more passenger type locomotives in Taiwan. Two new Pacifics, this time Japanese State Railways class 57, arrived in 1942 and four more in 1943. In addition, during the war the Japanese could only deliver to Taiwan some of their C11 type 1C1t-h2 tank locomotives and their general purpose class D51 1D1-h2 Mikado type locomotives. All Pacifics survived the war. Hitachi delivered eight more class 57 (presumably as war reparations) to Taiwan Railway Admistration. These were the last Pacific type locomotives to arrive in Taiwan or, then called, National China under Chiang Kai-shek administration.

List of Taiwanese Pacific Locomotives

  • E 200 2C1-h2 1067 ALCo-Rogers 51494 / 1912 in service to 1950s
  • E 201 2C1-h2 1067 ALCo-Rogers 51495 / 1912 in service to 1950s
  • E 202 2C1-h2 1067 ALCo-Rogers 51496 / 1912 in service to 1950s
  • E 203 2C1-h2 1067 ALCo-Rogers 53977 / 1912 in service to 1950s
  • C 551 2C1-h2 1067 Mitsubishi 169 / 1935 1972 in service Taipei Preserved Lotus Pound, Tzuo-Ying, Kaoshion
  • C 552 2C1-h2 1067 Mitsubishi 170 / 1935
  • C 553 2C1-h2 1067 Mitsubishi 171 / 1935 1972 in service Taipei
  • C 554 2C1-h2 1067 Mitsubishi 172 / 1935
  • C 555 2C1-h2 1067 Kawasaki 1575 / 1935 1972 in service Taipei
  • C 556 2C1-h2 1067 Mitsubishi 215 / 1938 1972 in service Taipei
  • C 557 2C1-h2 1067 Mitsubishi 216 / 1938
  • C 558 2C1-h2 1067 Mitsubishi 219 / 1938 1972 in service Taipei
  • C 559 2C1-h2 1067 Mitsubishi 220 / 1938 1972 in service Taipei Preserved Tainan Sports Park
  • C 571 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 1512 / 1942 1972 in service Chia Yi Preserved The Lover's Lake, Keelung
  • C 572 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 1513 / 1942
  • C 573 2C1-h2 1067 Kawasaki 2862 / 1943 1972 in service Chia Yi Preserved Taiwan Traditional Village, Chang-Hua
  • C 574 2C1-h2 1067 Kawasaki 2863 / 1943 1972 in service Chia Yi
  • C 575 2C1-h2 1067 Kawasaki 2864 / 1943
  • C 576 2C1-h2 1067 Kawasaki 2865 / 1943 1972 in service Chia Yi
  • CT 277 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 2102 / 1953 1972 in service Chia Yi
  • CT 278 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 2103 / 1953 Preserved Er-Shuei Station
  • CT 279 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 2104 / 1953
  • CT 280 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 2105 / 1953
  • CT 281 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 2106 / 1953
  • CT 282 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 2107 / 1953
  • CT 283 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 2108 / 1953 1972 in service Chia Yi
  • CT 284 2C1-h2 1067 Hitachi 2109 / 1953 1972 in service Chia Yi Preserved I-Lan Sports Park

Class E was reclassified to ET, and class C to CT under Taiwan Railway Administration.

Preservation as November 2006.

Source: ALCo and Japanese Locomotive builders work lists.

Europe

Austria

The only example in Austria was the class 629 tank locNeutroisomotive, built from 1913. This highly successful type remained in service until 1975. During the period 1938 - 1945 DRB class 03 and BMB-CMD class 387.0 Pacifics were used also on Wien (Vienna) - Oderberg / Bohumin line including former 84 km BBÖ Wien - Lundenburg / Breclav section. Class 03 Pacifics from Oderberg shed hauled Wien - Breslau - Berlin through express trains. Sometime in 1942 class 03 Pacifics were even tried on Wien - Salzburg express trains. They were here replaced by ex PKP class Pt31 1D1-h2 Mikado locomotives. Later during the World War Two, in 1943 the German Pacifics were replaced by Czech built class 387.0 Pacifics. In 1945 one class 03 Pacific remained in Austria. Pacific 03.113 (Henschel 22164 / 1933 ) was returned to DB only on 29.12.1952 and was taken in DB locomotive stock. It was withdrawn on 27.09.1966. In addition four ex Jugoslavian State Railways JDZ Pacifics 05.012 - 015 were in 1945 in Austria. They were returned by order of the Soviet Military Administration back to Jugoslavia in 1947.

Bulgaria

The Bulgarian State Railways BDZ bought its first four cylinder simple expansion Pacific type locomotive from Belgium in 1912.

  • Cockerill 2823 / 1912

It received BDZ number 21, in 1936 renumbered to 09.01. The locomotive was completely rebuilt in 1933. It hauled express trains from Sofia to Svilengrad.

Just before the World War Two BDZ decided in 1938 improve its fast express train service between Sofia and Burgas with light seven coach 280 ton day trains in both direction. An order was placed to Krupp in Germany for five three cylinder (470 x 660 ), 1850 mm coupled wheels 100.7 ton Pacific type locomotives with maximum speed of 120 kph (74.6 mph ). Because of the war the locomotives were delivered to Bulgaria only in 1941.

  • Krupp 2459 - 2463 / 1941

At first the Pacifics become BDZ class 07.01 - 05 but in 1942 their class was changed to 05.01 - 05. Their use was limited to light express trains but they all survived to the end of steam traction in Bulgaria in 1980s.

Source: Krupp Works List compiled by Dr. Ing. Bernhard Schmeiser.

For more reading: A.E.Durrant: The Steam Locomotives of Eastern Europe, SBN 0 7153 4077 8 David and Charles 1972.

Dr. Fritz Stöckl: Eisenbahnen in Sudosteuropa ISBN 3-7002-0431-X Bohman Verlag K.G. Wien 1975.

Dimiter Dejanow: Die Lokomotiven der Bulgarischen Staatsbahnen ISBN 3-85416-150-6 Verlag Josef Otto Slezak Wien 1990.

Finland

Twenty-two Pacifics classified Hr1 Nos 1000 - 1021 and named Ukko-Pekka, after the ((nickname)) of Finnish President Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, were constructed in Finland by Tampella and Lokomo between 1937 and 1957. They were the largest passenger locomotives built or used in Finland and remained the primary locomotives used for Southern Finland on express trains until 1963, when class Hr12 diesels took over. The last two built, Nos 1020 and 1021 (Lokomo 474 and 475, built in 1957) were fitted throughout with SKF C-type roller bearings, even coupled rod big ends and presented a fine combination of American and German locomotive building practice. They were, along with DB class 10, the last new built Pacific type locomotives in Europe.

When tested after delivery from Lokomo or Tampella each locomotive reached 140 kph (87 mph), but in ordinary service their speed was limited to 110 kph (68.4 mph). All locomotives were at first located at Pasila depot in Helsinki but in 1959 the last seven built were transferred to Kouvola depot. By European standards, Class Hr1 locomotives ran high annual kilometre figures in 1937 - 1963; from 125,000 km to 140,000 km per year per locomotive. The two fully roller bearing equipped locomotives even crossed the 150,000 kilometre mark in 1961 - the highest kilometre figure obtained by steam locomotives in Northern Europe. The only similar annual kilometres were run by European Pacific type locomotives in Germany and Peppercorn roller-bearing class A1 locomotives 60153 - 60157 in Great Britain.

At least 12 class Hr1 locomotives are preserved (as of April 2008). Two Hr1s remain in operational condition; Hr1 1021, owned by the VR Group and Hr1 1009, privately owned. Hr1 1001 is reserved for the Railway Museum in Hyvinkää and Hr1 1002 is reserved for the City of Helsinki for a possible static memory mark.

Germany

All German 4-6-2s were express passenger locomotives with large driving wheels (average diameter between 1.8 and 2.2 m). They were the BR 01 (two-cylinder standard type of Deutsche Reichsbahn), BR 02 (four-cylinder compound prototype), BR 03 (lighter version of BR 01), BR 10 (only two prototypes built by Deutsche Bundesbahn) and BR 18 (pre WWI locomotives of the different state railway companies), with many subclasses (e. g. BR 18.4, formerly S 3/6 from Bavaria). Some were streamlined, such as the BR 01.10 and BR 03.10 subclasses, with three cylinders instead of two plus streamlining, increasing maximum speed).

Portugal

Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses CP had two batches of Pacific type locomotives running on its broad gauge (1665 mm) lines. With the exception of the electric Estoril Railway from Lissabon (Lisboa) all the lines were operated by French-managed Compagnie des Chemins de Fer Portugais which owned the lines from Lissabon to Porto, to Valencia de Alcantara (Madrid) and to Elvas (Badajoz and Madrid). Before World War Two the CP was renowned for the speed of its trains. The track was carefully maintained, laid on 45 kg / metre (90 lb / yd) rails, and speed limit was in force, 120 kph (75 mph) being frequently reached with steam locomotives.

Pacifics Nr. 551 - 560 were used on lines south of River Tajo and Nr. 501 - 508, built for the Porto line north of Tajo. They had deep narrow grate. Both classes of Pacifics had same cylinders, driving wheels, and motion than ten-wheelers (2C) of the class 351 - 370. The Pacifics were able to run very fast, in 1939 a four-coach train weighing 170 tons, hauled by a Pacific of class 501 - 508 locomotive, covered the 343 km (212.9 miles) from Porto to Lissabon-Campolide (Lisboa-Campolide) with stops at Papilhosa and Entroncamento in 189 minutes at an overall speed of 107.8 kph (67 mph), 100 km slightly falling, level or slightly rising, having been covered at speeds of 140 to 145 kph (87 to 90 mph). In normal service, these engines could haul 400 tons behind tender at 120 kph (75 mph) on level track. The station stops lasting less than a minute were frequent. Such was the timekeeping during the days of steam in Portugal. Unfortunately these locomotives were replaced by diesels in 1960s and disappeared from the scene in early 1970s.

  • S e S Portugal 2C1-n2 301 - 310 Henschel 19880 - 19899 / 1924 renumbered to CP 551 - 560
  • CP 2C1-h2 601 - 608 Henschel 20435 - 20442 / 1925 renumbered to CP 501 - 508

Source: Gerard Vuillet: Railway Reminiscences of Three Continents 17 148014 7 Published by Thomas Nelson Ltd, Great Britain, London and Edinburgh. 1968.

  • Henschel Works List compiled by Dr. Ing. Bernhard Schmeiser, Wien (unpublished).

Sweden

Swedish State Railways SJ ordered from Nydqvist & Holm (Nohab ) in 1913 ten four cylinder compound Pacific type locomotives for Stockholm - Malmö heavy express train service. They had 1850 mm driving wheels and (2) 420 x 660 / (2) 630 x 660 mm cylinders. They become SJ class F numbers 1200 - 1209 and 1271. Locomotives were limited to maximum speed of 90 kph (56 mph ).

  • 1200 Nydqvist & Holm 1020 / 1914
  • 1201 - 1205 Nydqvist & Holm 1061 - 1065 / 1915
  • 1206 - 1209 Nydqvist & Holm 1066 - 1069 / 1916
  • 1271 Nydqvist & Holm 1070 / 1916

They hauled express trains on this Southern Mainline up to the electrification of Stockholm - Malmö line in 1933. SJ tried them then on Göteborg (Gothenburg) non electrified section, but they were not a success on this line which was also to be electrified. They all were sold to the neighbouring Danish State Railways DSB in 1937. It was only after they were withdrawn from service in Denmark when the Pacific type locomotives returned to Sweden. DSB 964 ex SJ 1200 was presented to SJ Railway Museum at Gävle in 1964 and DSB 966 ex SJ 1202 was presented by DSB Railway Museum in 1999 to SJ to haul heritage trains.

Source: Ulf Diehl, Ulf Fjeld, och Lennart Nilsson: Normalspåriga ånglok vid Statens Järnvägar, ISBN 91-85089-13-2 Published by Svenska Järnvägsklubben 1973.

United Kingdom

4-6-2s were built by all of the four pre-BR railway companies (although the Great Western Railway built only one, the first Pacific in Great Britain, No. 111 The Great Bear). A number of British Pacifics were notable for setting official world speed records for steam traction.

The LNER built some of the fastest and most famous examples. The GNR A1 Class (later rebuilt into the A3) featured three cylinders and the innovative Gresley conjugated valve gear, and No. 4472 Flying Scotsman was the first British locomotive to be officially recorded as reaching 100 mph (161 km/h). This speed was surpassed by the streamlined A4 class, with record performances by No. 2509 Silver Link (reaching 112mph (180km/h) on its inaugural run in 1935) and No. 4468 Mallard touching 126 mph (203 km/h) on 3 July 1938, which is still the world speed record for steam traction.

The London, Midland and Scottish Railway's Princess Coronation Class briefly held the British speed record for steam traction when No. 6220 Coronation reached 114 mph (183 km/h) on 29 June 1937. The LMS Princess Royal Class was also used as the basis for an unusual experimental locomotive, the Turbomotive.

During World War II the Southern Railway introduced a number of highly innovative designs, including the Merchant Navy Pacific and the West Country and Battle of Britain Classes.

British Railways Standard Class 7 Britannia Pacifics were a simple expansion two-cylinder design with Walschaerts valve gear, their conservative design reflecting a requirement for a more cost-effective, lower maintenance locomotive. The final Pacific design in the UK was No. 71000 Duke of Gloucester, built in 1954. It had many parts in common with the Britannias, but with three cylinders and Caprotti valve gear.

North America

Pacifics were the predominant steam passenger power in North America during the first half of the 20th century. Few railroads did not roster 4-6-2 locomotives as premier passenger power, although they were later supplanted in top-flight service on many roads on by larger 4-6-4 "Hudson", 4-8-2 "Mountain" or 4-8-4 "Northern" locomotives as train weights increased.

Approximately 7000 Pacifics were produced for U.S. and Canadian railroads. The largest user was the Pennsylvania Railroad, which had 697, including 425 class K4s, the largest single class of locomotive built in the United States (claimed to be worldwide, but this is unlikely, given huge fleets of identical German, Russian, and Chinese locomotives).

One notable 4-6-2 was preserved and has been restored to operating condition for excursions - Soo Line 2719 hauled the last of Soo Line Railroad's steam-powered trains in 1959. It was restored, beginning in 1996, and operates for excursion runs primarily in the Midwest United States.

The Humbermouth Historic Train Site in Corner Brook, Newfoundland, Canada includes a non-functional Baldwin Pacific as part of its collection. It was built in 1921 by Baldwin in Philadelphia, acquired by the Reid Newfoundland Company Ltd., and later transferred to the Newfoundland Railway. It was originally designated "193", later "593".

Canada

Newfoundland Railway gauge 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm) owned Pacific locomotives. These two cylinder 18" x 24" simple expansion 56.3 ton superheated Pacifics with 52" driving wheels were delivered to Newfoundland, Canada.

  • Baldwin 54398 / 1921 4-6-2S delivered to Reid-Newfoundland Co Number 190 -> CNR Nr. 590
  • Baldwin 54399 / 1921 4-6-2S delivered to Reid-Newfoundland Co Number 191 -> CNR Nr. 591
  • Baldwin 54400 / 1921 4-6-2S delivered to Reid-Newfoundland Co Number 192 -> CNR Nr. 592
  • Baldwin 54401 / 1921 4-6-2S delivered to Reid-Newfoundland Co Number 193 -> CNR Nr. 593 Preserved
  • Baldwin 54466 / 1921 4-6-2S delivered to Reid-Newfoundland Co Number 194 -> CNR Nr. 594
  • Baldwin 54467 / 1921 4-6-2S delivered to Reid-Newfoundland Co Number 195 -> CNR Nr. 595
  • Baldwin 59531 / 1926 4-6-2S delivered to Newfoundland Railway Nr. 196 -> CNR Nr. 596
  • ALCo-M 67129 / 1926 4-6-2S delivered to Newfoundland Railway Nr. 197 -> CNR Nr. 597
  • ALCo-S 67941 / 1929 4-6-2S delivered to Newfoundland Railway Nr. 198 -> CNR Nr. 598
  • ALCO-S 67942 / 1919 4-6-2S delivered to Newfoundland Railway Nr. 199 -> CNR Nr. 599

These Pacific type locomotives were the only ones which were built to operate on 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm) gauge in North America.

Canadian National Railway sold Nr 591 later to FC Nacional de Mexico where it received new number 139.

Source: ALCo and Baldwin Works List

Europe / Asia

Russia/Soviet Union

Pacifics were not common in Russia. The only known examples were the 4-cylinder L-class express passenger locomotives built by Putilov works at Saint Petersburg / Leningrad for Vladikavkaz private railroad. Their chief designer was Vazlav Lopushinskii, who later emigrated from Soviet Russia. These locomotives were the most powerful passenger locomotives in tsarist Russia. At first only 18 locomotives were built:

  • L 101 Putilov 1915 (work number inside range 2274 - 2445 )
  • L 102 - 103 Putilov 1914 (work numbers inside range 2205 - 2273 )
  • L 104 - 107 Putilov 1915 (work numbers inside range 2274 - 2445 )
  • L 108 - 113 Putilov 1916 (work numbers inside range 2446 - 2451 )
  • L 114 - 115 Putilov 1917 (work numbers inside range 2452 - 2463 )
  • L 116 - 118 Putilov 1918 (work numbers inside range 2464 - 2470 )

They were allocated at Rostov on Don, Tihoretskaya, Kavkazkaya, Armavir and Mineralnaya Vody depots and hauled principal express and heavy passenger train between Rostov on Don and Vladikavkaz(698 km ). All were oil fired. Locomotive L 107 was hit by a runaway train at Novorossisk in 1920 and was never repaired.

The building of class L Pacifics continued after the October Revolution in late 1922. Putilov works (renamed to Krasnyi Putilov ) built:

  • L 119 - 120 Krasnyi Putilov 1923 (work numbers inside range 2474 - 2485 )
  • L 121 - 129 Krasnyi Putilov 1924 (work numbers inside range 2486 - 2504 )
  • L 130 - 148 Krasnyi Putilov 1925 (work numbers inside range 2505 - 2523 )
  • L 149 - 166 Krasnyi Putilov 1926 (work numbers inside range 2524 - 2541 )

At first these coal fired locomotives were allocated to October Railway to haul principal passenger trains between Moscow and Leningrad over 650 km of double track line between the two largest cities in then Soviet Russia. By the time train speeds in Soviet Russia were slow and the fastest train took 14 hours 30 minutes between Moscow and Leningrad. But the trains which were running (four return workings daily ) were rather heavy, train loads often exceeding more than 700 (metric) tons behind tender of Pacifics. In 1936 the express trains were running at average speed of 65 kph (40 mph ) making four intermediate stops, between these cities. Locomotives were usually changed at Tver Kalinin.

When the series production of heavier 2-8-4 class IS Joseph Stalin got under way in 1937 Pacifics were transferred to join their older brother locomotives to North Caucasus lines. Their roster brought them as far south as to Baku. They were changed from coal firing to oil firing. In 1941 they were allocated to North Caucasus Railway (17 engines ), Transcaucasian Railway (29 engines) and to Orenburg Railway (6 engines ). In 1942 during the German summer invasion to North Caucasus all class L Pacifics there were evacuated to Transcaucasian Railway. After the World War Two they become in 1947 class Lp and were ousted from heaviest duties. A number were withdrawn 1956 - 1959. The last one, Lp 151, in 1967 from Groznyi depot.

In 1945 a 34 of Deutsche Reichsbahn Class 03 with two streamlined class 03.10 Pacific type locomotives fell in the Russian hands in East Prussia RBD Königsberg. They were regauged to 1524 mm (5ft ) gauge and allocated to MPS Lithuanian Railway. They hauled express and passenger trains between Vilnius and Kaliningrad, and between Vilnius and Minsk. Last ones were withdrawn from service in 1957.

Source: V.A.Rakov: Lokomotivy Otechjestvennyh Zhelenznyh Dorog ISBN 5-277-00821-7 Published by Transport, Moskva, 1995.

Africa

Abyssinia / Ethiopia

The French owned 784 km metre (1000 mm ) gauge Chemin de Fer Franco Ethiopien Djibouti - Addis Abeba had four Pacific type locomotives on its roster. The first one was bought from Forges, Usines et Fonderies de Haine-Saint-Pierre in Belgium in 1923. This locomotive was originally in 1914 ordered by Spanish Ferrocarril Madrid - Aragon but for unknown reason the locomotive was not delivered to Spain. Locomotive was saturated and had 1250 mm driving wheels and it suited well to Ethiopia to run 473 km between Addis Abeba and Dire Dawa. Three more superheated, nearly similar Pacific locomotives were ordered in 1936. When locomotives arrived the Italians had conquered Abessinia and the Pacifics were allocated two and two at Addis Abeba and Dire Dawa sheds. They continued to haul passenger trains until the main line diesels arrived in 1956. All were soon withdrawn from service and scrapped in early 1960s.

  • 231 2C1-n2 Haine St Pierre 1244 / 1923 (so in works plate )
  • 232 - 234 2C1-h2 Haine St Pierre 1780 - 1782 / 1937 (weight in working order 44 ton )

Source: Continental Railway Journal articles and Haine St Pierre works list.

Egypt

Egypt State Railways depended in all principal express trains of light locomotives which were hauled mostly by Atlantic 2B1 or by Tenwheeler 2C types of passenger train locomotives to 1954. The last twenty passenger locomotives which were ordered in 1953 were Pacific type locomotives. Order was placed to Societe Alsacienne at Grafenstaden in Alsace. These were almost built as 2C2 (4-6-4 ) Hudsons but the original specification, calling two hour schedule for 150 km Cairo to Alexandria runs with 550 tonne trains was eased to suit with 500 tonne train load, with the result that Pacific type could to the job with 500 tonne train behind tender. The design was unusual for Pacific, being entirely for oil burning, a long narrow firebox with combustion chamber was fitted between plate frames. They had a short life in express train service. The 1956 war spoiled the fast running in Egypt. The Pacifics were transferred from Cairo - Alexandria runs to haul slower night express trains to Luxor and Aswan. At least some remained into service up to 1967.

Sources: Hugh Hughes Middle East Railways and Societe Alsacienne Works List.

Malawi

Former Nyasaland Railway obtained six ex British War Department Pacific type 1067 mm gauge locomotives in 1946 idented to work on Trans-Zambesi Railway TZR.

  • classF TZR 25 2C1-h2 North British Locomotive 24855 / 1942
  • classF TZR 26 2C1-h2 North British Locomotive 24856 / 1942
  • classF TZR 27 2C1-h2 North British Locomotive 24858 / 1942
  • classF TZR 28 2C1-h2 North British Locomotive 24853 / 1942
  • classF TZR 29 2C1-h2 North British Locomotive 24852 / 1942
  • classF TZR 30 2C1-h2 North British Locomotive 24850 / 1942

All were still in service in 1973.

Source: Continental Railway Journal

Mozambique

The first Pacific type locomotives were ordered to then Caminhos fe Ferro de Lourenco Marques in Portuguese colony Mocambique. They hauled passenger trains between Lourenco Marques and Ressano Garcia 88 km. Occasionally these CFML engines crossed the South African border and run to South African Komatipoort border station (93 km from Lourenco Marques ) where SAR locomotives took over and continued to Pretoria.

At first only three locomotives were delivered by Baldwin in 1919, two more were added into stock in 1923. When these Americans were ending their career in international trains to South Africa an order was placed to Henschel for additional Pacifics. Henschel delivered four Pacific type locomotives for Beira - Machipanda line. Henschel supplied three more modern Pacific type locomotives to Caminhos de Ferro de Mocambique in 1955. When they arrived their older American courterparts were removed to haul Lourenco Marques local suburban service. All 300 class eight Pacifics were allocated to Lourenco Marques shed for whole of their lives. All were still in service in 1971. These locomotives were good examples of Pacific type "Cape" 1067 mm gauge passenger locomotives in Southern Africa.

  • 301 - 303 2C1-h2 Baldwin 52201 - 52203 / 1919 ex CFLM
  • 304 - 305 2C1-h2 Baldwin 57397 - 57398 / 1923 ex CFLM
  • 331 - 333 2C1-h2 Henschel 29066 - 29068 / 1955

Henschel built Pacifics weighted 73.75 ton in working order. Total weight with two bogie tender was 128 ton.

Cylinders 480 x 660 mm. Diameter of driving wheels 1524 mm (5ft ). Grate area 3.80 sq.metre.

Source: Continental Railway Journal, Glasers Annalen, Baldwin and Henschel Works Lists.

Nigeria

Nigerian 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm ) gauge Railways ordered from Nasmyth Wilson & Co, Manchester ten simple expansion Pacific type locomotives for Nigerian "express" train service between 1126 km Lagos and Kano. They had 18" x 26" outside cylinders and 5ft (1525 mm ) driving wheels. They hauled named trains just like "North Mail" and "Boat Express" both averaging only 35 km/h between stops. All ten class 405 Pacifics were named. They were ousted from principal passenger trains when first line diesel locomotives arrived, but remained in less important secondary train service well in the 1970s.

  • 405 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1471 / 1926 ALAKA OF ABEOKUTA
  • 406 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1472 / 1926 AWUJALE OF IJUBU-ODE
  • 407 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1473 / 1926 ALAFIN OF OYO
  • 408 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1474 / 1926 ONI OF IFE
  • 409 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1475 / 1926 OBA OF BENIN
  • 410 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1476 / 1926 MARY SLESSOR
  • 411 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1533 / 1928 EMIR OF ILORIN
  • 412 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1534 / 1928 EMIR OF KAIAMA
  • 413 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1535 / 1928 RICHARD LANDER
  • 414 2C1-h2 Nasmyth Wilson 1536 / 1928 JEAN MARIE COQUARD

Source: Nasmyth & Wilson Works List and A.E.Durrant, A.A.Jorgensen, C.P.Lewis; Steam In Africa ISBN 0-600-34946-2 Published by Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited 1981.

South Africa

The first Pacific type locomotives in South Africa were light " Karoo " type class 5B Pacifics which were delivered as early as in 1904 by Beyer Peacock to Cape Government Railways. Of these locomotives Nr 523 is preserved at De Aar. These locomotives were built as saturated steam locomotives. The next batch was 12 class 10C Pacifics which were built by North British Locomotive in 1910 - 1911. These locomotives had 1450 mm diameter driwing wheels. In addition American Locomotive Company ALCo delivered one class 10A superheated Pacific locomotive to just formed (1910) South African Railways and Harbours. The modern Pacific type locomotives were delivered to SAR in 1920s. They were classified to class 16 divided to subclasses depending of builder and varying dimensions. Class 16D Pacifics were built by Baldwin. This was the first time when big American steam power was introduced in South Africa. American locomotives had many features common in United States but not previously used by SAR. Such as arch tubes, master mechanic self cleaning smokeboxes and grease lubrication. In 1928 orders were placed for German builders Hohenzollern and Henschel for Pacific type locomotives fitted also with latest German features for (then) modern passenger steam locomotives. South Africa with its 3 ft 6 in (1067 mm) gauge network has the distinction of operating a 4-6-2 locomotive with the biggest driving wheels on the narrow gauge. The Class 16E variant drivers were 6 ft (1.828 m) in diameter and had Poppet valve gear. The six locomotives were in service from 1930, and one achieved These locomotives were withdrawn in 1975, though preserved examples operated on specials until the end of steam in 1990. The class had the highest boilers on South African rails, with the centre-line 9 ft 3 in (2.8194 m) above rail level.

In ordinary service the SAR class 16D and 16E Pacifics worked the most famous named SAR express trains between Cape Town and Johannesburg, a rail distance of 1536 km with only one change of locomotive at Beaufort West.

The other Class 16 variants with 4-6-2 drivers were not as large or as fast as the Es. The smaller Class 10 locomotive of the 4-6-2 arrangement operated on the SAR from 1910.

Class 16 Pacifics were withdrawn from ordinary service service in 1975. Some were sold to industry and one is preserved to haul special trains.

There is a story circulating around the world of setting the world record for Cape gauge. Officially SAR has confirmed that class 16 Pacifics attained speeds over 130 kph (80.8 mph ) when dynamometer car was coupled into test trains. But one retired SAR shed foreman has told a fascinating story of real world record speed of 1067 mm gauge. Shortly after the World War Two in late 1945 one of class 16E Pacific locomotives was severely damaged in a bad accident. It was considered to withdraw the locomotive because the German builders were not in condition to supply or handle heavy repair work that engine needed. Instead of withdrawal it was decided to try to repair the Pacific locally. For months the shed foreman and his men were laboured with this repair work, machining many parts by hand. Finally, the repairs was completed and the Pacific was lighted up, coupled in front of dynamometer car and tried on test train on level section of Cape - Johannesburg main line. The needle of Haushealter speed recorder on the dynamometer car went upward and upward until it reached a speed of 148 km/h or . This is for sure the speed record which almost certainly must be unparallered in the world for 1067 mm gauge.

  • SAR 1002 2C1-h2 21" x 28" 62" 69.5 ton ALCo 46715 / 1909 1067 mm (3 ft 6 in ) gauge
  • SAR 843 - 850 2C1-h2 Baldwin 60820 - 60827 / 1929 class 16D
  • SAR 853 2C1-h2 Henschel 22583 / 1935 JOHANNESBURG class 16E fitted with poppet valves
  • SAR 854 2C1-h2 Henschel 22584 / 1935 BLOEMFONTEIN class 16E fitted with poppet valves
  • SAR 855 2C1-h2 Henschel 22585 / 1935 KIMBERLEY class 16E fitted with poppet valves
  • SAR 856 2C1-h2 Henschel 22586 / 1935 HARRISMITH class 16E fitted with poppet valves
  • SAR 857 2C1-h2 Henschel 22587 / 1935 KROONSTAD class 16E fitted with poppet valves
  • SAR 858 2C1-h2 Henschel 22588 / 1935 ALLAN G.WATSON class 16E fitted with poppet valves
  • SAR 859 - 860 2C1-h2 Baldwin 58309 - 58310 / 1925 class 16D
  • SAR 863 - 867 2C1-h2 Baldwin 58703 - 58707 / 1925 class 16D
  • SAR 868 - 873 2C1-h2 Hohenzollern 4653 - 4658 / 1928 class 16DA
  • SAR 874 - 879 2C1-h2 Henschel 21749 - 21754 / 1930 class 16E fitted with poppet valves.

Sources: ALCo, Baldwin, Henschel, Hohenzollern Works Lists.

Tunisia

Chemins de Fer Bone a Guelma placed in service in 1914 five standard (1435 mm) gauge Pacific type locomotives at Tunis locomotive depot. They were numbered 181 - 185, later to become Chemins de Fer Tunisiens 231.181 - 231.185. They worked out from Tunis to Ghardiamou on Algerian / Tunisian border 211 km, hauling the Tunis - Alger direct express pair of trains and some semifast passenger trains between Tunis and Bizerta 98 km. When arrived to Tunisia they were familiar sight ahead of daily 8.16 morning Tunis - Alger express at Tunis Ville station. This was a typical roster for Pacifics arriving at 13.16 to Ghardimaou. The turn around time was four hours before the same locomotive returned at the head of direct Alger - Tunis express at 17.23 arriving to Tunis Ville at 22.24. In later years more Pacific type locomotives were ordered by the Chemins de Fer Tunisiens. Eventually there were twelve on them in Tunisia.

  • CF Bone - Guelma Nr.181 - 185 later CFT 231.181 - 231.185 Societe Alsacienne Works numbers 6599 - 6603 / 1914
  • Chemins de Fer Tunisiens 231.186 - 231.188 Societe Alsacienne Works numbers 7374 - 7376 / 1923
  • Chemins de Fer Tunisiens 231.189 - 231.192 Societe Alsacienne Works numbers 7568 - 7571 / 1928

They hauled all principal express and passenger trains between Tunis Ville and Ghardimaou to 1951 until the first post World War Two main line diesels arrived. They were regleted to secondary trains and all were withdrawn from service circa 1954 - 1955.

Originally ordered for Chemins de Fer Bone a Guelma in 1914 these five 1000 mm (metre) gauge Pacific type locomotives were a great success. Tunisian Railways ordered three more in 1928. Their builder details were:

  • CF Bone - Guelma No 801 later 231.801 Societe Alsacienne Works number 6584 / 1914
  • CF Bone - Guelma No 802 later 231.802 Societe Alsacienne Works number 6585 / 1914
  • CF Bone - Guelma No 803 later 231.803 Societe Alsacienne Works number 6586 / 1914
  • CF Bone - Guelma No 804 later 231.804 Societe Alsacienne Works number 6587 / 1914
  • CF Bone - Guelma No 805 later 231.805 Societe Alsacienne Works number 6588 / 1914
  • Chemins de Fer Tunisiens 231.806 Societe Alcacienne Works number 7499 / 1928
  • Chemins de Fer Tunisiens 231.807 Societe Alsacienne Works number 7500 / 1928
  • Chemins de Fer Tunisiens 231.808 Societe Alsacienne Works number 7501 / 1928

These locomotives were used on metre gauge main line south from Tunis to Sousse (149 km) and farther south to Sfax (279 km). These locomotives provided between World War One and World War Two the fastest metre gauge service in the world. Speeds over 100 kph (62.1 mph) were common in ordinary service with driving wheels of diameter 1500 mm and cylinders (2) 465 x 610 mm. Engine weight in working order was 56.6 metric ton.

When Tunisian Railways were dieselised in 1951 - 1955 these locomotives were withdrawn from service and stored. But as late as in 1951 - 1952 they achieved speeds up to 110 kph (68.8 mph). In 1958 engines 231.801, 805, 808, 807 were sold to Spain for Ferrocarril La Robla where they received Numbers 181 - 185 in above mentioned order. In Spain they served more than ten years FC La Robla. Those which remained in Tunisia were scrapped in 1959 and the Spanish ones in early 1970s.

Source: Continental Railway Journal Nr.1 (1969) and 4 (1970) (New Series) Article: Tunisian Railways by P.M. Kalla-Bishop.

Cultural references

Swiss composer Arthur Honegger wrote his symphonic poem Pacific 231 in honor of the locomotive, using the French designation 2-3-1, counting by axle instead of wheel.

References

  • Gilchinski, Steve (1997). "Soo Line 2-8-2 back in steam". Trains magazine 57 (2): 24–25.
  • Heath, Eric, and Stott, Bob; Classic Steam Locomotives of New Zealand, Grantham House, 1993.

South African references

  • RSA Government, South African Last Stronghold of Steam, SAR, Kimberley, 1978. ISBN 0 949934 24 0
  • Lewis, C.P. & Jorgensen. The Great Steam Trek, Struiker, Cape Town, 1978. ISBN 0 86977 101 9Specific


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