Electric locks use magnets, solenoids, or motors to actuate the lock by either supplying or removing power. Operating the lock can be as simple as using a switch, for example an apartment intercom door release, or as complex as a biometric based access control system.
Electric locks come in many forms. The most basic is a magnetic lock (commonly called a mag lock). A large electro-magnet is mounted on the door frame and a corresponding armature is mounted on the door. When the magnet is powered and the door is closed, the armature is held fast to the magnet. Mag locks are simple to install and are very attack resistant. But mag locks are also problematic. Improperly installed or maintained mag locks have fallen on people. Also there is no mechanical free egress. In other words, one must unlock the mag lock to both enter and leave. This has caused fire marshals to impose strict codes on the use of mag locks and the access control practice in general. Other problems include a lag time in releasing as the collapsing magnetic field is not instantaneous. This lag time can cause a user to walk into the door, comically known as a face plant. Finally, mag locks by design fail unlocked, that is if power is removed they unlock. This could be a problem where security is a prime concern.
Electric strikes replace a standard strike mounted on the door frame and receive the latch and latch bolt. Electric strikes can be simple to install when they are designed for drop-in replacement of a standard strike. But some electric strikes require that the door frame be heavily modified. Electric strikes allow mechanical free egress: As a user leaves, he operates the lockset in the door, not the electric strike in the door frame. Electric strikes can also be either fail unlocked, as a mag lock, or the more secure fail locked. Electric strikes are easier to attack than a mag lock. It is simple to lever the door open at the strike. Often the there is an increased gap between the strike and the door latch. Latch guards are often used to cover this gap
Electric mortise and cylindrical locks are drop in replacements for the door mounted mechanical locks. A hole must be drilled in the door for electric power wires. Also a power transfer hinge is used to get the power from the door frame to the door. Electric mortise and cylindrical locks allow mechanical free egress. Electric mortise and cylindrical locks can be either fail unlocked or fail locked.
Electrified exit hardware, sometimes called panic hardware or crash bars, are used in fire exit applications. The idea is that one simply pushes against the bar to open it, making it the easiest of mechanically free exit methods. Electrified exit hardware can be either fail unlocked or fail locked. A drawback of electrified exit hardware is their complexity which requires skill to install and maintenance to assure proper function.
Although rare in the US, motor operated locks are used throughout Europe. A European motor operated lock has two modes, day mode where only the latch is electrically operated, and night mode where the more secure deadbolt is electrically operated.
Electronic locks offer a variety of means of authentication; those described below are not considered exhaustive.