is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar
, celebrated among Gaelic
peoples and some other Celtic
cultures either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring
. Most commonly it is celebrated on February 2
, since this is the cross-quarter day
on the solar calendar
, halfway between the Winter Solstice and the Spring Equinox in the northern hemisphere. Originally dedicated to the goddess Brigid
, in the Christian
period it was adopted as St Brigid's Day
. In Scotland
the festival is also known as Là Fhèill Brìghde
, in Ireland
as Lá Fhéile Bríde
, and in Wales
as Gwyl Ffraed
Imbolc is traditionally a time of weather prognostication, and the old tradition of watching to see if serpents or badgers came from their winter dens is perhaps a precursor to the North American Groundhog Day. A Scottish Gaelic proverb about the day is:
Thig an nathair as an toll
La donn Bride,
Ged robh tri traighean dh’ an t-sneachd
Air leachd an lair.
"The serpent will come from the hole
On the brown Day of Bride,
Though there should be three feet of snow
On the flat surface of the ground."
Fire and purification are an important aspect of this festival. Brigid (also known as Brighid, Bríde, Brigit, Brìd) is the goddess of poetry, healing and smithcraft. As both goddess and saint she is also associated with holy wells, sacred flames, and healing. The lighting of candles and fires represents the return of warmth and the increasing power of the Sun over the coming months.
That Imbolc was an important time to the ancient inhabitants of Ireland can be seen at a number of Megalithic
sites, such as at the Loughcrew
burial mounds and the Mound of the Hostages
in Tara, Ireland
. Here, the inner chamber of the passage tombs are perfectly aligned with the rising sun of both Imbolc and Samhain
. Similar to the phenomena seen at Newgrange
, the rising Imbolc sun shines down the long passageway and illuminates the inner chamber of the tomb.
Evidence of how Imbolc was celebrated in Ireland derives from ancient Celtic manuscripts that mention the festival, and folklore collected during the 19th and early 20th century in rural Ireland and Scotland. This material is also compared with studies of similar customs in Scandinavia, and customs maintained up till the present day in the Celtic nations
and the Irish
and Scottish diasporas
Among agrarian peoples, Imbolc has been traditionally associated with the onset of lactation of ewes, soon to give birth to the spring lambs. Chadwick notes that this could vary by as much as two weeks before or after the start of February. However, the timing of agrarian festivals can vary widely, given regional variations in climate. This has led to some debate about both the timing and origins of the festival.
In Irish, Imbolc (pronounced im'olk) from the Old Irish, meaning "in the belly" (i mbolg), referring to the pregnancy of ewes, and is also a Celtic term for spring. Another name is Oimelc, meaning "ewe's milk". Some Celts and Neopagans shorten the name to Brigid, referring to the Celtic goddess of healing, poetry and smithcraft, to whom the day is sacred.
The holiday is a festival of the hearth and home, and a celebration of the lengthening days and the early signs of spring. Rituals often involve hearthfires, special foods, divination or simply watching for omens (whether performed in all seriousness or as children's games), a great deal of candles, and perhaps an outdoor bonfire if the weather permits.
St. Brigid's Day
In the modern Irish Calendar
, Imbolc is variously known as the Feast of Saint Brigid
(Secondary Patron of Ireland), Lá Fhéile Bríde
, and Lá Feabhra — the first day of Spring
. Christians may call the day "Candlemas" or "the feast of the Purification of the Virgin
One folk tradition that continues in both Christian and Pagan homes on St. Brigid's Day (or Imbolc) is that of the Brigid's Bed. The girls and young, unmarried women of the household or village create a corn dolly to represent Brigid, called the Brideog ("little Brigid" or "young Brigid"), adorning it with ribbons and baubles like shells or stones. They make a bed for the Brideog to lie in. On St. Brigid's Eve (January 31), the girls and young women gather together in one house to stay up all night with the Brideog, and are later visited by all the young men of the community who must ask permission to enter the home, and then treat them and the corn dolly with respect.
Brigid is said to walk the earth on Imbolc eve. Before going to bed, each member of the household may leave a piece of clothing or strip of cloth outside for Brigid to bless. The head of the household will smother (or "smoor") the fire and rake the ashes smooth. In the morning, they look for some kind of mark on the ashes, a sign that Brigid has passed that way in the night or morning. The clothes or strips of cloth are brought inside, and believed to now have powers of healing and protection.
On the following day, the girls carry the Brideog through the village or neighborhood, from house to house, where this representation of the Saint/goddess is welcomed with great honor. Adult women — those who are married or who run a household — stay home to welcome the Brigid procession, perhaps with an offering of coins or a snack. Since Brigid represents the light half of the year, and the power that will bring people from the dark season of winter into spring, her presence is very important at this time of year."
Imbolc is the day the Cailleach
— the hag goddess
— gathers Her firewood for the rest of the winter. Legend has it that if she intends to make the winter last a good while longer, she will make sure the weather on Imbolc is bright and sunny, so she can gather plenty of firewood. Therefore, people are generally relieved if Imbolc is a day of foul weather, as it means the Cailleach is asleep and winter is almost over. On the Isle of Man, where She is known as Caillagh ny Groamagh
, the Cailleach is said to have been seen on Imbolc in the form of a gigantic bird, carrying sticks in her beak.
Neopagans of diverse traditions observe this holiday in numerous ways. As forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how the Ancient Celts and Living Celtic cultures have maintained the traditions, while others observe the holiday with rituals culled from numerous other unrelated sources, Celtic cultures being only one of the sources used.
In more recent times the occasion has been generally celebrated by modern Pagans on Feb. 1 or 2. Some Neopagans relate this celebration to the midpoint between the winter solstice and spring equinox, which actually falls later in the first week of the month. Since the Celtic year was based on both lunar and solar cycles, it is most likely that the holiday would be celebrated on the full moon nearest the midpoint between the winter solstice and vernal equinox, or when the primroses, dandelions, or other spring flowers rise up through the snow.
Like other Reconstructionist
traditions, Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans
place emphasis on historical accuracy. They base their celebrations and rituals on traditional lore from the living Celtic cultures, as well as research into the older beliefs of the polytheistic
Celts. They usually celebrate the festival when the first stirrings of spring are felt, or on the full moon that falls closest to this time. Many use traditional songs and rites from sources such as The Silver Bough
and The Carmina Gadelica
. It is especially a time of honoring the Goddess Brighid, and many of her dedicants choose this time of year for rituals to her.
celebrate a variation of Imbolc as one of four "fire festivals", which make up half of the eight holidays (or "sabbats
"), of the wheel of the year
. Imbolc is defined as a cross-quarter day
, midway between the winter solstice
) and the spring equinox
). The precise astrological midpoint in the Northern hemisphere is when the sun reaches fifteen degrees of Aquarius
. In the Southern hemisphere, if celebrated as the beginning of Spring, the date is the midpoint of Leo
. Among Dianic Wiccans
, Imbolc (also known as "Candlemas
") is the traditional time for initiations
Among Reclaiming-style Wiccans, Imbolc is considered a traditional time for rededication and pledges for the coming year.
- Carmichael, Alexander (1992) Carmina Gadelica: Hymns and Incantations (with illustrative notes on wards, rites, and customs dying and obsolete/ orally collected in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland) Hudson, NY, Lindisfarne Press, ISBN 0-940262-50-9
- Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts London, Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021211-6
- Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland. Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2
- McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1–4. William MacLellan, Glasgow
- Ó Catháin, Séamas (1995) Festival of Brigit