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lithium-chloride

Lithium chloride

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Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl. The salt is a typical ionic compound, although the small size of the Li+ ion gives rise to properties not seen for other alkali metal chlorides, such as extraordinary solubility in polar solvents (83g/100 mL of water at 20 °C) and its hygroscopic properties.

Chemical properties

The salt forms crystalline hydrates, unlike the other alkali metal chlorides. Mono-, tri-, and pentahydrates are known. It also absorbs up to four equivalents of ammonia. As with any other ionic chlorides, solutions of lithium chloride can serve as a source of chloride ion, e.g. forming a precipitate upon treatment with silver nitrate:
LiCl + AgNO3 → AgCl + LiNO3

Preparation

Lithium chloride is produced by treatment of lithium carbonate with hydrochloric acid. It can in principle also be generated by the highly exothermic reaction of lithium metal with either chlorine or anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas. To minimize hydrolysis, anhydrous LiCl is prepared from the hydrate by heating with a stream of hydrogen chloride.

Uses

Lithium chloride is mainly used for the production of lithium metal by electrolysis of a LiCl/KCl melt at 600 °C. LiCl is also used as a brazing flux for aluminium in automobile parts. It is used as a desiccant for drying air streams. In more specialized applications, lithium chloride finds some use in organic synthesis, e.g. as an additive in the Stille reaction. Also, in biochemical applications, it can be used to precipitate RNA from cellular extracts.

Lithium chloride is also used as a flame colorant to produce dark red flames.

Precautions

Lithium salts affect the central nervous system; see lithium pharmacology for more details. For a short time in the 1940s lithium chloride was manufactured as a substitute for salt, but this was prohibited after the toxic effects of the compound were recognized.

References

  • Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st edition, CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990.
  • N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  • R. Vatassery, titration analysis of LiCl, sat'd in Ethanol by AgNO3 to precipitate AgCl(s). EP of this titration gives%Cl by mass.
  • H. Nechamkin, The Chemistry of the Elements, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.

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