See M. Hirst, Life of Friedrich List and Selections from His Writings (1909, repr. 1965).
(born Aug. 6, 1789, Reutlingen, Württemberg, Ger.—died Nov. 30, 1846, Kufstein, Austria) German-born U.S. economist. He first gained prominence as the founder of an association of German industrialists that favoured abolishing tariff barriers between the German states. Exiled in 1825 for his liberal views, he went to the U.S. In his Outlines of American Political Economy (1827) he maintained that a national economy in an early stage of industrialization required tariff protection to stimulate development. After becoming a U.S. citizen, he returned to Germany as U.S. consul at Baden (1831–34) and Leipzig (1834–37). His best-known work was The National System of Political Economy (1841). Financial and other difficulties eventually drove him to suicide.
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The A-list is part of a larger guide called The Hot List that has become an industry-standard guide in Hollywood. Lesser-known actors inhabit the B+, B, and C lists, and there is even a dreaded "Bottom of the Heap," or "Z-List." James Ulmer has also developed a Hot List of directors.
The 2008 list also includes:
In the UK, the term "Z-list" is used for people with very limited fame, such as reality TV contestants, or former celebrities who are no longer in the limelight. Also, "Z-list" celebrities can be people who might star on Broadway musicals, giving them limited fame as well.