List, Friedrich, 1789-1846, German economist. The first professor of economics at the Univ. of Tübingen, he was elected (1820) to the Württemberg legislature. For his advocacy of administrative reforms he was sentenced to imprisonment but was released on condition that he would emigrate to the United States. There he engaged in various enterprises, and in 1832 he was returned to Germany as U.S. consul at Leipzig. Insisting upon the necessity for a commercial association of German states and the full development of productive powers in those states, he became a ceaseless advocate of a customs union (Zollverein). He urged a policy of economic protection for young industries and nations. Many of his influential ideas were subsequently adopted by the U.S. government. List's most important work is The National System of Political Economy (1840, tr. 1904).

See M. Hirst, Life of Friedrich List and Selections from His Writings (1909, repr. 1965).

The A-list is a term that alludes to major movie stars, and/or the most bankable in the Hollywood movie industry.

The A-list is part of a larger guide called The Hot List that has become an industry-standard guide in Hollywood. Lesser-known actors inhabit the B+, B, and C lists, and there is even a dreaded "Bottom of the Heap," or "Z-List." James Ulmer has also developed a Hot List of directors.

Ulmer Scale

The list was created by veteran entertainment journalist James Ulmer, who developed a 100-point method to quantify a star's value to a film production, in terms of getting a movie financed and the cameras rolling. The Ulmer Scale also takes into account an actor's history (box office successes vs. failures), versatility, professional demeanor, and ability and willingness to travel and promote movies.

Will Smith topped the rank as highest paid actor in 2008. Tom Hanks and Tom Cruise topped the latest ranking in 2006. Ulmer's latest Top Ten List, from 2006, also includes:

The 2008 list also includes:

Popular usage

In popular usage outside the movie industry, an "A-list celebrity" simply refers to any person with an admired or desirable social status. Similarly, less popular persons and current teen idols are referred to as "B-list." The term "D-List," popularized by comedienne Kathy Griffin, has been used to describe the level of celebrity that would appear on reality shows such as The Surreal Life, Celebrity Mole or I'm A Celebrity, Get Me Out Of Here. Comedian Artie Lange has referred to the members of Howard Stern's Wack Pack, specifically Eric the Midget, as "G-List Celebrities."

In the UK, the term "Z-list" is used for people with very limited fame, such as reality TV contestants, or former celebrities who are no longer in the limelight. Also, "Z-list" celebrities can be people who might star on Broadway musicals, giving them limited fame as well.

See also


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