Lipton, Seymour, 1903-86, American sculptor, b. New York City. Self-taught as a sculptor, Lipton worked directly in sheet metals and molten alloys, creating organically twisting forms with richly brazed textural effects. During the 1940s he sculpted heavy jagged shapes suggesting spiritual conflict. In the 1950s his work tended to more graceful forms evocative of plant and animal life. Representative works are Jungle Bloom (Yale Univ. Art Gall., New Haven) and Sanctuary (Mus. of Modern Art, New York City).
Lipton, Sir Thomas Johnstone, 1850-1931, Scottish merchant and yachting enthusiast. After spending several years in the United States he returned (1869) to his native Glasgow and opened a small grocery store. A pioneer in the art of publicity, he rapidly expanded his business and was a millionaire at the age of 30. He ran printing and paper works, set up several bacon-curing establishments in Chicago, and in 1889 acquired his own tea plantations in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). He was knighted in 1898 and was created a baronet in 1902. He made five attempts to win the America's Cup yachting trophy. His good sportsmanship endeared him to the American public, which gave him a gold cup after his last defeat in 1930.

See his autobiography (1932).

(born March 18, 1922, New York City, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 31, 2006, Arlington, Va.) U.S. sociologist and political scientist. He received his bachelor's degree from the City College of New York and his Ph.D. from Columbia University, where he later taught (1950–56). While teaching at the University of California, Berkeley (1956–66), he also served as director of its Institute of International Studies (1962–66). Since then he has taught at Harvard University, Stanford University, and George Mason University. His many books about class structure, elite behaviour, and political parties have significantly shaped the study of comparative politics.

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