All the genes on a single chromosome. They are inherited as a group; during cell division they act and move as a unit rather than independently. Variations in linkage groups can occur if a chromosome breaks, and the sections join with the partner chromosome if it has broken in the same places. This exchange of genes between chromosomes, called crossing-over, usually occurs during meiosis. Sex linkage is the tendency of a characteristic to be linked to one sex; sex-linked traits in humans include red-green colour blindness and hemophilia.
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In mechanical engineering, a system of solid, usually metallic, links (bars) connected to two or more other links by pin joints (hinges), sliding joints, or ball-and-socket joints to form a closed chain or a series of closed chains. When one link is fixed, the possible movements of the other links relative to the fixed link and to one another depend on the number of links and the number and types of joints. With four pin-connected links, for example, the links all move in parallel planes, and regardless of which link is fixed, the others move in a fixed way relative to the fixed link. With various relative lengths of the links, this four-bar linkage becomes a useful mechanism for converting uniform rotary to non-uniform rotary motion or continuous rotary to oscillatory motion. It is the most commonly used linkage mechanism in machine construction.
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