The rim of Schiller has an elongated shape that is amplified by its proximity to the lunar limb. The long axis lies along a line running northwest-southeast, with the wider girth located in the southeastern half. There is a slight bend in the elongation, with the concave side facing to the northeast. Observers have noted that Schiller appears to be a fusion of two or more craters. It bears a superficial resemblance to the footprint left by a shoe.
The crater rim is well-defined, with a terraced inner wall and a slight outer rampart. At the southeast end, a smaller crater is connected to Schiller by a wide valley. Most of the Schiller crater floor is flat, most likely due to lava flooding. There are some bright patches that are most clearly visible under a high sun angle. A double-ridge lies along the center of the northwest crater floor, forming a nearly linear formation that divides the floor in half.
Southwest of Schiller is an unnamed area of maria. It is speculated that this is the remains of an ancient formation that has had its outer walls completely eroded away. This basin has received the unofficial designation 'Schiller Annular Plain' among lunar observers.