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Mathematical modeling technique useful for guiding quantitative decisions in business, industrial engineering, and to a lesser extent the social and physical sciences. Solving a linear programming problem can be reduced to finding the optimum value (*see* optimization) of a linear equation (called an objective function), subject to a set of constraints expressed as inequalities. The number of inequalities and variables depends on the complexity of the problem, whose solution is found by solving the system of inequalities like a system of equations. The extensive use of linear programming during World War II to deal with transportation, scheduling and allocations of resources under constraints like cost and priority gave the subject an impetus that carried it into the postwar era. The number of equations and variables needed to model real-life situations accurately is large, and the solution process can be time-consuming even with computers. *Seealso* simplex method.

Learn more about linear programming with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

Branch of algebra concerned with methods of solving systems of linear equations; more generally, the mathematics of linear transformations and vector spaces. “Linear” refers to the form of the equations involved—in two dimensions, *math.a**math.x* + *math.b**math.y* = *math.c*. Geometrically, this represents a line. If the variables are replaced by vectors, functions, or derivatives, the equation becomes a linear transformation. A system of equations of this type is a system of linear transformations. Because it shows when such a system has a solution and how to find it, linear algebra is essential to the theory of mathematical analysis and differential equations. Its applications extend beyond the physical sciences into, for example, biology and economics.

Learn more about linear algebra with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

or **linac**

Type of particle accelerator that imparts a series of relatively small increases in energy to subatomic particles as they pass through a sequence of alternating electric fields set up in a linear structure. The small accelerations add together to give the particles a greater energy than could be achieved by the voltage used in one section alone. One of the world's longest linacs is the 2-mi (3.2-km) machine at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, which can accelerate electrons to energies of 50 billion electron volts. Much smaller linacs, both proton and electron types, have important practical applications in medicine and industry.

Learn more about linear accelerator with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

The word linear comes from the Latin word linearis, which means created by lines.
In advanced mathematics, a linear map or function f(x) is a function which satisfies the following two properties:## Integral linearity

## Linear polynomials

## Boolean functions

## Physics

## Electronics

## Military tactical formations

## Art

Linear is one of the five categories proposed by Swiss art historian Heinrich Wölfflin to distinguish "Classic", or Renaissance art, from the Baroque. According to Wölfflin, painters of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries (Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael or Albrecht Dürer) are more linear than "painterly" Baroque painters of the seventeenth (Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt, and Velázquez) because they primarily use outline to create form.
## Music

## Measurement

In measurement, the term "linear foot" refers to the number of feet in a straight line of material (such as lumber or fabric) generally without regard to the width. It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "lineal feet"; however, "lineal" is typically reserved for usage when referring to ancestry or heredity. The words "linear" & "lineal"
both descend from the same root meaning, the Latin word for line, which is "linea".
## References

## See also

- Additivity (also called the superposition property): f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y). This says that f is a group homomorphism with respect to addition.
- Homogeneity of degree 1: f(αx) = αf(x) for all α. It turns out that homogeneity follows from the additivity property in all cases where α is rational. In that case, provided that the function is continuous, it becomes useless to establish the condition of homogeneity as an additional axiom.

In this definition, x is not necessarily a real number, but can in general be a member of any vector space. A less restrictive definition of linear function, not coinciding with the definition of linear map, is used in elementary mathematics.

The concept of linearity can be extended to linear operators. Important examples of linear operators include the derivative considered as a differential operator, and many constructed from it, such as del and the Laplacian. When a differential equation can be expressed in linear form, it is particularly easy to solve by breaking the equation up into smaller pieces, solving each of those pieces, and adding the solutions up.

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (or linear spaces), linear transformations (or linear maps), and systems of linear equations.

Nonlinear equations and functions are of interest to physicists and mathematicians because they can be used to represent many natural phenomena, including chaos.

For a device that converts a quantity to another quantity there are three basic definitions for integral linearity in common use: independent linearity, zero-based linearity, and terminal, or end-point, linearity. In each case, linearity defines how well the device's actual performance across a specified operating range approximates a straight line. Linearity is usually measured in terms of a deviation, or non-linearity, from an ideal straight line and it is typically expressed in terms of percent of full scale, or in ppm (parts per million) of full scale. Typically, the straight line is obtained by performing a least-squares fit of the data. The three definitions vary in the manner in which the straight line is positioned relative to the actual device's performance. Also, all three of these definitions ignore any gain, or offset errors that may be present in the actual device's performance characteristics.

Many times a device's specifications will simply refer to linearity, with no other explanation as to which type of linearity is intended. In cases where a specification is expressed simply as linearity, it is assumed to imply independent linearity.

Independent linearity is probably the most commonly-used linearity definition and is often found in the specifications for DMMs and ADCs, as well as devices like potentiometers. Independent linearity is defined as the maximum deviation of actual performance relative to a straight line, located such that it minimizes the maximum deviation. In that case there are no constraints placed upon the positioning of the straight line and it may be wherever necessary to minimize the deviations between it and the device's actual performance characteristic.

Zero-based linearity forces the lower range value of the straight line to be equal to the actual lower range value of the device's characteristic, but it does allow the line to be rotated to minimize the maximum deviation. In this case, since the positioning of the straight line is constrained by the requirement that the lower range values of the line and the device's characteristic be coincident, the non-linearity based on this definition will generally be larger than for independent linearity.

For terminal linearity, there is no flexibility allowed in the placement of the straight line in order to minimize the deviations. The straight line must be located such that each of its end-points coincides with the device's actual upper and lower range values. This means that the non-linearity measured by this definition will typically be larger than that measured by the independent, or the zero-based linearity definitions. This definition of linearity is often associated with ADCs, DACs and various sensors.

A fourth linearity definition, absolute linearity, is sometimes also encountered. Absolute linearity is a variation of terminal linearity, in that it allows no flexibility in the placement of the straight line, however in this case the gain and offset errors of the actual device are included in the linearity measurement, making this the most difficult measure of a device's performance. For absolute linearity the end points of the straight line are defined by the ideal upper and lower range values for the device, rather than the actual values. The linearity error in this instance is the maximum deviation of the actual device's performance from ideal.

In a different usage to the above, a polynomial of degree 1 is said to be linear, because the graph of a function of that form is a line.

Over the reals, a linear function is one of the form:

- f(x) = m x + b

m is often called the slope or gradient; b the y-intercept, which gives the point of intersection between the graph of the function and the y-axis.

Note that this usage of the term linear is not the same as the above, because linear polynomials over the real numbers do not in general satisfy either additivity or homogeneity. In fact, they do so if and only if b = 0. Hence, if b ≠ 0, the function is often called an affine function (see in greater generality affine transformation).

In Boolean algebra, a linear function is one such that:

If there exists $a\_0,\; a\_1,\; ldots,\; a\_n\; in\; \{0,1\}$ such that $f(b\_1,\; ldots,\; b\_n)\; =\; a\_0\; oplus\; (a\_1\; land\; b\_1)\; oplus\; ldots\; oplus\; (a\_n\; land\; b\_n),\; forall\; b\_1,\; ldots,\; b\_n\; in\; \{0,1\}$

A Boolean function is linear if A) In every row of the truth table in which the value of the function is 'T', there are an even number of 'T's assigned to the arguments of the function; and in every row in which the truth value of the function is 'F', there are an odd number of 'T's assigned to arguments; or B) In every row in which the truth value of the function is 'T', there are an odd number of 'T's assigned to the arguments and in every row in which the function is 'F' there is an even number of 'T's assigned to arguments.

Another way to express this is that each variable always makes a difference in the truth-value of the operation or it never makes a difference.

Negation, Logical biconditional, exclusive or, tautology, and contradiction are linear binary functions.

In physics, linearity is a property of the differential equations governing a lot of systems (like, for instance Maxwell equations or the diffusion equation).

Namely, linearity of a differential equation means that if two functions f and g are solution of the equation, then their sum f+g is also a solution of the equation.

In electronics, the linear operating region of a transistor is where the collector-emitter current is related to the base current by a simple scale factor, enabling the transistor to be used as an amplifier that preserves the fidelity of analog signals. Linear is similarly used to describe regions of any function, mathematical or physical, that follow a straight line with arbitrary slope.

In military tactical formations, "linear formations" were adapted from phalanx-like formations of pike protected by handgunners towards shallow formations of handgunners protected by progressively fewer pikes. This kind of formation would get thinner until its extreme in the age of Wellington with the 'Thin Red Line'. It would eventually be replaced by skirmish order at the time of the invention of the breech-loading rifle that allowed soldiers to move and fire independently of the large scale formations and fight in small, mobile units.

In music the linear aspect is succession, either intervals or melody, as opposed to simultaneity or the vertical aspect.

- Linear element
- Linear system
- Linear equation
- Nonlinear
- Linear medium
- Linear programming
- Bilinear
- Multilinear
- Linear motor
- Linear A and Linear B scripts.
- Linear interpolation

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Last updated on Monday September 29, 2008 at 04:41:36 PDT (GMT -0700)

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