Liliaceae

Liliaceae

The Liliaceae, or the lily family, is a family of monocotyledons in the order Liliales. Plants in this family have linear leaves, mostly with parallel veins but with several having net venation (e.g., Cardiocrinum, Clintonia, Medeola, Prosartes, Scoliopus, Tricyrtis), and flower arranged in threes. Several have bulbs, while others have rhizomes. Shade-dwelling genera usually have broad, net-veined leaves, fleshy fruits with animal-dispersed seeds, rhizomes, and small, inconspicuous flowers; genera native to sunny habitats usually have narrow, parallel-veined leaves, capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds, bulbs, and large, visually conspicuous flowers.

Many plants in the Liliaceae are important ornamental plants, widely grown for their attractive flowers. Many species are poisonous if eaten. A floral pattern said to be based on a lily or lily-like flower is used in heraldry; see Fleur-de-lis.

The lily family was formerly a paraphyletic "catch-all" group that included a great number of genera now included in other families, and some in other orders, including Agavaceae, Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Melanthiaceae, Nartheciaceae, Ruscaceae, Smilacaceae , Tecophilaeaceae, Themidaceae, Tofieldiaceae, and Uvulariaceae, and members of the monocot orders Asparagales, Dioscoreales, and Alismatales. Smilacaceae appears to be the family most closely related to Liliaceae.

The genus Calochortus, which includes the sego and mariposa lilies, and its allied genera are separated into a separate family Calochortaceae in some schemes, while others maintain them as a subfamily of Liliaceae, the Calochortoideae.

It is estimated that the family evolved 58 million years ago during the Early Paleogene.

Genera

The list below includes genera that have historically been classified in family Liliaceae. Monocot classification has undergone considerable revision in recent years, and some newer systems, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group's APG II classification system, have assigned many of these genera to different families based on genetic relationships. APG II transfers to other families (and, where it applies, orders) are listed in brackets.

  • Ismene = Hymenocallis subg. ismene (Amaryllidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Jaimehintonia (Alliaceae, Asparagales)
  • Johnsonia (Laxmanniaceae, Asparagales)
  • Kniphofia (Asphodelaceae, Asparagales)
  • Laxmannia (Laxmanniaceae, Asparagales)
  • Lepidopharynx (Amaryllidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Leucocrinum (Laxmanniaceae, Asparagales)
  • Leucojum Snowflake (Amaryllidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Lilium Lily (Liliaceae)
  • Liriope (plant) Lilyturf (Ruscaceae, Asparagales)
  • Maianthemum (Ruscaceae, Asparagales)
  • Melanthium (Melanthiaceae)
  • Metanarthecium (Nartheciaceae, Dioscoreales)
  • Miersia (Alliaceae, Asparagales)
  • Milla (Themidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Molineria (Hypoxidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Muilla (Themidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Narcissus Jonquil, daffodil (Amaryllidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Narthecium (Nartheciaceae, Dioscoreales)
  • Nietneria (Melanthiaceae)
  • Nomocharis (Liliaceae)
  • Notholirion (Liliaceae)
  • Nothoscordum (Alliaceae, Asparagales)
  • Odontostomum (Tecophilaeaceae, Asparagales)
  • Ophiopogon (Ruscaceae, Asparagales)
  • Ornithogalum (Hyacinthaceae, Asparagales)
  • Paradisea (Anthericaceae, Asparagales)
  • Paris (Melanthiaceae)
  • Peliosanthes (Ruscaceae, Asparagales)
  • Phaedranassa (Amaryllidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Polygonatum Solomon's seal (Ruscaceae, Asparagales)
  • Prosartes
  • Schoenocaulon (Melanthiaceae)
  • Scilla (Hyacinthaceae, Asparagales)
  • Scoliopus (Liliaceae)
  • Selonia = Eremurus (Asphodelaceae, Asparagales)
  • Smilacina False Solomon's seal (Ruscaceae, Asparagales, as Maianthemum)
  • Stenanthium (Melanthiaceae)
  • Streptopus (Liliaceae)
  • Stropholirion (Ruscaceae, Asparagales)
  • Theropogon (Alliaceae, Asparagales)
  • Tofieldia (Tofieldiaceae, Alismatales)
  • Tovaria (Ruscaceae, Asparagales)
  • Toxicoscordion = Zigadenus (Melanthiaceae)
  • Tracyanthus (Melanthiaceae)
  • Tricyrtis (Liliaceae)
  • Trillium Trillium (Melanthiaceae)
  • Triteleia (Themidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Tulbaghia Society garlic (Alliaceae, Asparagales)
  • Tulipa Tulip (Liliaceae)
  • Tupistra (Ruscaceae, Asparagales)
  • Urceolina (Amaryllidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Uvularia (Colchicaceae, Asparagales)
  • Vagnera = Smilacina = Maianthemum (Rusacaceae, Asparagales)
  • Veratrum (Melanthiaceae)
  • Wurmbea (Colchicaceae, Asparagales)
  • Xerophyllum (Melanthiaceae)
  • Zephyranthes (Amaryllidaceae, Asparagales)
  • Zigadenus (Melanthiaceae)
  • Zygadenus = 'Zigadenus'' (Melanthiaceae)
  • References

    • APG. 1998. An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 85: 531-553.
    • APG II. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436.
    • Chase, M. W., M. R. Duvall, H. G. Hills, J. G. Conran, A. V. Cox, L. E. Eguiarte, J. Hartwell, M. F. Fay, L. R.Caddick, K. M. Cameron, and S. Hoot. 1995. Molecular phylogenetics of Lilianae. Pp. 109-137 in P. J. Rudall, P. J. Cribb, D. F. Cutler, and C. J. Humphries (editors), Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chase, M. W., M. F. Fay, D. Devey, O. Maurin, N. Rønsted, J. Davies, Y. Pillon, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, M. N. Tamura, C. B. Asmussen, K. Hilu, T. Borsch, J. I. Davis, D. W. Stevenson, J. C. Pires, T. J. Givnish, K. J. Sytsma, M. A. McPherson, S. W. Graham, and Rai, H. S. 2006. Multigene analyses of monocot relationships: a summary. Pp. 63-75 in J. T. Columbus, E. A. Friar, J. M. Porter, L. M. Prince, and M. G. Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: comparative biology and evolution (excluding Poales). Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 22: 63-75.]
    • Dahlgren, R. M. T., H. T. Clifford, and P. F. Yeo. 1985. The families of monocotyledons. - Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Germany.
    • Givnish, T. J., J. C. Pires, S. W. Graham, M. A. McPherson, L. M. Prince, T. B. Patterson, H. S. Rai, E. R. Roalson, T. M. Evans, W. J Hahn, K. C. Millam, A. W. Meerow, M. Molvray, P. Kores, H. E. O’Brien, W. J. Kress, J. Hall, and K. J. Sytsma. 2005. Repeated evolution of net venation and fleshy fruits among monocots in shaded habitats confirms a priori predictions: evidence from an ndhF phylogeny. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 272: 1481-1490.
    • Givnish, T. J., J. C. Pires, S. W. Graham, M. A. McPherson, L. M. Prince, T. B. Patterson, H. S. Rai, E. R. Roalson, T. M. Evans, W. J Hahn, K. C. Millam, A. W. Meerow, M. Molvray, P. Kores, H. E. O’Brien, W. J. Kress, J. Hall, and K. J. Sytsma. 2006. Phylogeny of the monocotyledons based on the highly informative plastid gene ndhF: evidence for widespread concerted convergence. Pp. 28-51 in J. T. Columbus, E. A. Friar, J. M. Porter, L. M. Prince, and M. G. Simpson (eds.) Monocots: comparative biology and evolution (excluding Poales). Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, CA.
    • Graham, S. W., J. M. Zgurski, M. A. McPherson, D. M. Cherniawsky, J. M. Saarela, E. F. C. Horne, S. Y. Smith, W. A. Wong, H. E. O'Brien, V. L. Biron, J. C. Pires, R. G. Olmstead, M. W. Chase, and H. S. Rai. 2006. Robust inference of monocot deep phylogeny using an expanded multigene plastid data set. Pp. 3-21 in J. T. Columbus, E. A. Friar, J. M. Porter, L. M. Prince, and M. G. Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: comparative biology and evolution (excluding Poales). Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 22: 3-21.]
    • Kelch, D. G. 2000. What happened to the lily family? Pacific Horticulture 61:76-79.
    • Kubitzki, K. (Editor) 1998: The families and genera of vascular plants, Vol.3. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Germany. ISBN 3-540-64060-6
    • Patterson, T. B., and T. J. Givnish. 2002. Phylogeny, concerted convergence, and phylogenetic niche conservatism in the core Liliales: insights from rbcL and ndhF sequence data. Evolution 56: 233-252.
    • Rønsted, N., S. Law, H. Thornton, M. F. Fay, and M. W. Chase. 2005. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the monophyly of Fritillaria and Lilium (Liliaceae; Liliales) and the infrageneric classification of Fritillaria. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 509-527.
    • Vinnersten, A., and K. Bremer. 2001. Age and biogeography of major clades in Liliales. American Journal of Botany 88: 1695-1703.
    • Zomlefer, W. B., N. H. Williams, W. M. Whitten, and W. S. Judd. 2001. Generic circumscription and relationships in the tribe Melanthieae (Liliales, Melanthiaceae), with emphasis on Zigadenus: evidence from ITS and trnL-F sequence data. American Journal of Botany 88: 1657-1669.

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