ThinkPad is a brand of portable laptop and notebook personal computers originally designed, manufactured and sold by IBM. Since early 2005, the ThinkPad range has been manufactured and marketed by Lenovo, which purchased the IBM PC division.
The ThinkPad 750 flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour during a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope on December 2, 1993. The ThinkPad 750C's task was to run a NASA test program which determined if radiation inherent in the space environment causes memory anomalies in the 750C or generates other unexpected problems. In 1995, the average number used was five, and in 1999 the average number was nine. Throughout 2006, a ThinkPad A31p was being used in the Service Module Central Post of the International Space Station and seven ThinkPad A31p laptops were in service in orbit aboard the International Space Station.
ThinkPads have been praised for exceptional build quality, system reliability, and services throughout their decade and a half of presence in the consumer market. The original design was a collaboration between Tom Hardy, corporate manager of the IBM Design Program, Italian-based designer Richard Sapper (noted then for the design of the Tizio lamp and later commissioned to design a ballpoint for Lamy) and Kazuhiko Yamazaki, lead notebook designer at IBM's Yamato Design Center in Japan. Sapper proposed a design inspired by the Shōkadō bentō, a traditional black-lacquered Japanese lunch box.
The fold-out butterfly keyboard, which appeared in the ThinkPad 701 series, is widely considered a design masterpiece and is on display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The ThinkPad 760 series also included an unusual keyboard design; the keyboard was elevated by two arms riding on small rails on the side of the screen, tilting the keyboard to achieve a more ergonomic design.
The 755CV featured another interesting design quirk: the screen could be separated from the lid, allowing it to be used to project the computer display using an overhead projector, before data projectors were commonplace.
|ThinkPad R Series|
14.1" or 15.4" with mainstream performance, uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors
|ThinkPad SL Series|
13.3", 14.1" or 15.4" built for small business, uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors
|ThinkPad T Series|
14.1" or 15.4" premier performance , uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors
|ThinkPad X Series|
12.1" or 13.3" light-weight ultra-portable, uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors
|ThinkPad X Series Tablet|
12.1" convertible tablet, uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors
|ThinkPad W Series|
15.4" or 17" ultimate mobile workstation, uses Intel Core 2 Duo or Quad processors
ThinkPad R40 series: This line of notebooks comprised the R40 and the R40e. These had Mobile Celeron, Pentium 4-M or Pentium M processors, depending on sub-variant. ThinkPad R50 series: Based on the T40 series, this line of notebooks includes the R50, R50e, R50p, R51, R51e and R52. This series of notebooks is available with fingerprint-readers and uses many components also found in T40-series models, such as batteries, keyboards and planars (system boards). The R51e and the R52, both based on the T43 system board, are the first R-series notebook to utilize DDR2-memory and include a SATA-controller, however uses only PATA-harddrives. ThinkPad S30 and S31: Japan & Taiwan-only Pentium III model with no CD drive, a screen, 256MB Maximum RAM, PCMCIA slot, CF slot, 2 USB 1.1 ports, Firewire port, RJ11 and RJ45, and a keyboard with English and Japanese shared keys. Battery with built-in stand, long life 5 hr run. HDD 20 GB upgradeable to 160 GB tested. Some models have built-in WiFi. BIOS are interchangeable in S30 and S31 and tested to work. The latest known BIOS is 1.82. ThinkPad T20 series: Comprising the T20, T21, T22 and T23, these were Mobile Pentium III or Mobile Pentium III-M, sub-5 lb (2.3 kg) class machines. Contained processors ranging from 0.18 micrometre Mobile Pentium III 650 MHz to 0.13 micrometre Mobile Pentium III-M 1.20 GHz. Typically had XGA screens, Ultrabay 2000 optical drives, S3 Savage/IX-MV graphics chip and Cirrus Logic CS 4614/22/24 sound chips; although variations along the line existed. Introduced the ThinkLight, a LED mounted inside the upper screen lip that illuminates the keyboard (activated with Fn-PgUp, the extreme diagonal keys); and titanium-reinforced and rubberized screen lids. Used MiniPCI form factor cards, which could be modem and/or Ethernet. With the T23, an internal WiFi antenna became available, so WiFi miniPCI cards could be used. These models did not contain the active hard drive protection or touchpad pointing device which appeared in later models. They were clad in black non-slip rubber with embedded glitter. The case lid had tabs along the edge that interlocked with depressions in the lower case when closed, to reduce case flexing. Comparatively more stylish, functional, and rugged machines; and easy to disassemble for repair or upgrades. The T23 machine, known internally in IBM as the 'Toronto' model, the first to include Windows XP, is acknowledged by many as having the best keyboard on any laptop computer. ThinkPad T30: Features include an Intel Mobile Pentium 4 processor ranging from 1.6 GHz to 2.4 GHz. A T30 may accommodate up to a 2.4 GHz processor with the latest BIOS and Embedded Controller upgrades. Graphics are provided by ATI Radeon Mobility 7500 hardware with 16 MB of discrete video memory, which supports external widescreen resolutions. Users have even reported success with output resolutions of 1920x1200 via DVI on the optional Port Replicator II docking station, although IBM claims a limit of 1280x1024 due to a weak TMDS transmitter. The T30 was available with a screen, with resolutions of 1024 x 768 and 1400 x 1050. DVI video output is available with the optional Port Replicator II docking station, but resolution is officially limited to 1280x1024. Features available include the embedded security subsystem, UltraNav touchpad, 256 MB standard memory (1 GB maximum according to IBM manual, but it has been reported to accept 2 GB of RAM), a 20, 40 or 60 GB hard disk, Ultrabay Plus drive, wireless, and Bluetooth. The T30 also contains a miniPCI slot usable for a wireless card. The shell is titanium-reinforced composite. The whole package was a bit heavier and thicker than the T4x series.
ThinkPad T40 series: Includes the T40, T41, T42, T43, and associated "p" series (for "performance"; e.g., T43p). A typical T4x weighs 2.2 kg (4.9 lb), slightly less than the 600 series, and features an Intel Pentium M Processor (ranging from the Intel Pentium M at 1.3 GHz to the Intel Pentium M 770 at 2.13 GHz), a 14.1 or LCD (XGA, SXGA+), an integrated GPU (Intel Graphics Media Adapter 900) or a discrete GPU (Radeon x300, 7500, 9000, Fire GL 9000, 9600, Fire GL T2, X300, and Fire GL V3200), and a hard drive ranging in size from 30 to 100 GB with the Active Protection System to protect the hard drive (T41 and later models). "p" (mobile workstation) models are also available with a SXGA+ or a SXGA+/UXGA FlexView display with wide viewing angle and high density IPS technology. These display models weigh slightly more than their lesser brethren, with optical drive and battery, at 2.7 kg (5.9 lb). All T4x models use either 6-cell or 9-cell lithium-ion batteries, as well as an optional 4-cell Ultrabay Slim lithium-polymer battery. The 9-cell battery gives a runtime of 5+ hours and a crease allowing the notebook to lay flat on an airplane tray-table. Some T42 and T43 models feature a biometric security system with built-in fingerprint reader. Some types of the model also had the option to include Bluetooth support. The T40 was IBM's first ThinkPad to use the Pentium M "Banias" CPU. The T42 employed a Pentium M "Dothan" processor with a 400 MHz frontside bus, while the T43 used a later revision Dothan running a 533 MHz FSB. ThinkPad T60 series: Includes the T60, T61; and associated "p" series (for "performance"; e.g. T60p); intended as the next generation of the T4x Series ThinkPads; this is the first T Series ThinkPad to include the Intel Core Duo "Yonah" Technology, and later the Intel Core 2 Duo "Merom" Mobile technology; and the first T-series ThinkPads to come in widescreen resolution. This model has a VMX-enabled BIOS (although the lowest end Intel Core CPUs themselves do not support VMX, such as the T5500), meaning that running fully virtualised operating systems via Xen or VMware is possible. The T61, announced in May 2007, features a widescreen resolution as the default resolution, and incorporates the Intel Santa Rosa platform having a fully 64-bit chipset, and is the first T-series ThinkPad to have an integrated web camera (optional), smart card reader (optional), and media card reader (optional). Furthering innovation founded in the T60, the T61 also sports a top-cover roll cage, aside from the magnesium roll cage inside the main chassis. T61 extra features include a fingerprint reader (some models) and a new improved framing (all models). ThinkPad X20 series: Pentium III Mobile, sub-4 lb machines. Contained Pentium III-M processors ranging from 500 MHz to 1.13 GHz. 12.1 inch XGA screens, and ATI Rage Mobility M1 (X20, X21) or Radeon Mobility M6 (X22, X23, X24) graphics chips. Used miniPCI form factor cards, which supports modem and/or Ethernet. With the X22 and later machines, provisions for wireless networking support are built into the chassis. Ultrabay 2000 optical drive support can be fitted via the Ultrabase portable docking station option, and extended batteries can give the series a 5-hour running time. ThinkPad X30 series: Pentium III Mobile (X30), Pentium M Banias (X31) or Pentium M Dothan (X32), 12.1 inch XGA screens, dedicated Graphic Chip (ATI M6 with 16 MB, which means no shared memory is cut from the RAM), Bluetooth on some models (upgradable), WLAN (802.11b, b/g or even a/b/g), FireWire, CompactFlash card slot. No built-in optical drive. Lots of options like second battery, Mediaslice (for battery and UltraBay), port replicators, docking stations (some with a PCI slot). ThinkPad X40 Series: An example of the lightweight X series, weighing in at 1.2 kg (2.7 lb), 25% lighter than its predecessor, the X31. The last variant of the X40 series, the X41 Tablet, was the first ThinkPad tablet PC since the original pen-based ThinkPad. It is the lightest 12" Tablet PC with a keyboard from any manufacturer. It was also the final released ThinkPad designed by IBM before the brand was purchased by Lenovo. (The X40 was known internally in IBM as the 'Sydney' model) ThinkPad X60 series: Includes the X60 and X61, with their associated "s" and "Tablet" series. The X60 is first X Series ThinkPad to feature Intel chips using the Intel Core architecture. The Core Duo L2400 (Low Voltage) CPU on the X60s model achieves 7+ hours of battery life on standard benchmarks, and can reach around 10 hours under light use, when using the extended-life battery. Note this model lacks a built-in optical drive, unlike the larger T60. The X61, like the T61, also is the first X-series ThinkPad to use Intel's Santa Rosa platform. This series includes the Thinkpad Reserve Edition, a 5,000 model limited edition laptop designed for exective class professionals. It was clad in hand-stiched leather, and came with a 3 year 24/7 service warranty that was second to none. ThinkPad X300: Codenamed "Kodachi". Released February 26, 2008. Distinguished from other ultraportables by its usage of LED backlighting, removable battery, solid state drive, and integrated DVD burner, it is the flagship model for the X-series. It also integrates GPS, WWAN, and a webcam in the top lid. The thickest part of the notebook is 2.34 cm (0.92 inches)and the thinnest part is 1.85 cm (0.73 inches). ThinkPad Z60 series: This is the first ThinkPad to feature a widescreen (16:10 aspect ratio) display. The Z Series is also the first ThinkPad equipped with a titanium lid (on some models). Integrated WWAN and/or webcam also found on some configurations. The series includes, as of 2006, the Z60 and Z61; the latter of which is the first Z Series ThinkPad with Intel "Yonah" Dual Core Technology. The processor supports Intel VT; this is disabled in the BIOS but can be turned on thanks to a BIOS update. Running fully virtualised operating systems via Xen or VMware is therefore possible. ThinkPad W Series: A recent line of mobile workstations designed to suit the needs of CAD/CAM users, 3D and Video artists and photographers.