Lessing

Lessing

[les-ing]
Lessing, Doris, 1919-, British novelist, b. Kermanshah, Persia (now Iran) as Doris May Tayler. Largely self-educated, she was brought up on a farm in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), and in 1949 went to England, where her first novel, The Grass Is Singing (1950), was published. Widely regarded as one of the major writers of the mid-20th cent. and an influential figure among feminists, Lessing writes on a wide variety of themes including Rhodesia, women, communism, and global catastrophe. Distinguished for its energy and intelligence, her work is principally concerned with the lives of women—their psychology, sexuality, politics, work, relationship to men and to their children, and their change of vision as they age. In her later books she has mainly focused on efforts by individuals to resist society's pressures toward marginalization and acculturation.

Throughout Lessing's work run currents of realism and fantasy, each of which dominate in some novels and mingle in others. Her fiction includes a series of five novels collectively entitled The Children of Violence, which concern a semiautobiographical character named Martha Quest; the series includes Martha Quest (1952), Ripple from the Storm (1958), and The Four-Gated City (1969). A series of five science-fiction novels is collectively entitled Canopus in Argos: Archives, of which The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 (1982) is best known. One of her most influential works, The Golden Notebook (1962), a study of the struggles of a woman writer, served as an inspiration to the feminist movement of the 1960s and 70s, and is now considered a classic of feminist fiction.

Among Lessing's other novels are Briefing for a Descent into Hell (1971); The Summer before the Dark (1973); The Good Terrorist (1985); The Fifth Child (1988) and its sequel, Ben, in the World (2000); The Sweetest Dream (2001), a semiautobiographical tale of the 1960s; The Grandmothers (2003); and The Cleft (2007). To dramatize the plight of unknown novelists, Lessing wrote two novels, The Diary of a Good Neighbour (1983) and If the Old Could (1984), under the pseudonym of Jane Somers; they were ignored by critics until Lessing revealed their true authorship. She is well known for her short stories and has also written essays, e.g., Time Bites (2005). Lessing was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Literature.

See her volumes of autobiography, Under My Skin (1994) and Walking in the Shade (1997) and her part-novel, part-memoir Alfred & Emily (2008); biographies by A. Myles (1990) and C. Klein (2000); studies by R. Rubinstein (1979), I. Homquist (1980), M. Knapp (1984), C. Sprague and V. Tiger (1986), J. Pickering (1990), and M. Rowe (1994).

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 1729-81, German philosopher, dramatist, and critic, one of the most influential figures of the Enlightenment. He was connected with the theater in Berlin, where he produced some of his most famous works, and with the national theater in Hamburg. His series of critical essays, Hamburgische Dramaturgie (1767-69), attacked the French classical theater and claimed that it had failed to capture the true spirit of Aristotelian dramatic unities. From 1770 he was librarian at Wolfenbüttel, writing there Zur Geschichte und Literatur [on history and literature] (1773-77). Other significant critical works are Literaturbriefe [literary letters] (1759-65) and Laokoon (1766). Lessing differentiated between the poet as interpreter of time and the artist as interpreter of space; he found different aesthetic criteria applicable to each. His plays include Miss Sara Sampson (1755), Minna von Barnhelm (1763, tr. 1799), Emilia Galotti (1772, tr. 1909), and Nathan the Wise (1779, tr. 1781), which was partly the result of the numerous theological controversies into which he was drawn by his insistence on freedom of thought. A deist, Lessing took theology seriously. His Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts [education of the human race] (1780) applied Enlightenment ideas of progress and evolution to religion. Lessing's introduction in Germany of English literature, especially of Shakespeare, was an important contribution.

See studies by H. E. Allison (1966), A. F. Brown (1971), and H. B. Garland (1949, repr. 1973).

(born Jan. 22, 1729, Kamenz, Upper Lusatia, Saxony—died Feb. 15, 1781, Braunschweig, Brunswick) German playwright and critic. After writing several light comedies, he became a theatre critic in Berlin in 1748. His play Miss Sara Sampson (1755) was the first German domestic tragedy. After studying philosophy and aesthetics in Breslau, he wrote the influential treatise Laocoön: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry (1766). Minna von Barnhelm (1767), his finest play, marks the beginning of classical German comedy. He was adviser to the first Hamburg national theatre and published his reviews as essays on the principles of drama in Hamburg Dramaturgy (1767–69). His Wolfenbüttel Fragments (1774–78) attacked orthodox Christianity, arousing great controversy. He also wrote the tragedy Emilia Galotti (1772) and the famous dramatic poem Nathan the Wise (1779).

Learn more about Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Doris May Tayler

(born Oct. 22, 1919, Kermānshāh, Persia [now Iran]) British novelist and short-story writer. She lived on a farm in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 1924 to 1949 before settling in England and beginning her writing career. Her works, which have often reflected her leftist political activism, are largely concerned with people caught in social and political upheavals. Children of Violence (1952–69), a semiautobiographical five-novel series featuring the character Martha Quest, reflects her African experience and is among her most substantial works. The Golden Notebook (1962), her most widely read novel, is a feminist classic. Her masterful short stories are published in several collections. Other works include a science-fiction novel sequence, several novels published under the pseudonym Jane Somers, the volumes of autobiography Under My Skin (1994) and Walking in the Shade (1997), and collections of essays, including Time Bites (2004). She won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2007.

Learn more about Lessing, Doris (May) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 22, 1729, Kamenz, Upper Lusatia, Saxony—died Feb. 15, 1781, Braunschweig, Brunswick) German playwright and critic. After writing several light comedies, he became a theatre critic in Berlin in 1748. His play Miss Sara Sampson (1755) was the first German domestic tragedy. After studying philosophy and aesthetics in Breslau, he wrote the influential treatise Laocoön: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry (1766). Minna von Barnhelm (1767), his finest play, marks the beginning of classical German comedy. He was adviser to the first Hamburg national theatre and published his reviews as essays on the principles of drama in Hamburg Dramaturgy (1767–69). His Wolfenbüttel Fragments (1774–78) attacked orthodox Christianity, arousing great controversy. He also wrote the tragedy Emilia Galotti (1772) and the famous dramatic poem Nathan the Wise (1779).

Learn more about Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Doris May Tayler

(born Oct. 22, 1919, Kermānshāh, Persia [now Iran]) British novelist and short-story writer. She lived on a farm in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 1924 to 1949 before settling in England and beginning her writing career. Her works, which have often reflected her leftist political activism, are largely concerned with people caught in social and political upheavals. Children of Violence (1952–69), a semiautobiographical five-novel series featuring the character Martha Quest, reflects her African experience and is among her most substantial works. The Golden Notebook (1962), her most widely read novel, is a feminist classic. Her masterful short stories are published in several collections. Other works include a science-fiction novel sequence, several novels published under the pseudonym Jane Somers, the volumes of autobiography Under My Skin (1994) and Walking in the Shade (1997), and collections of essays, including Time Bites (2004). She won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2007.

Learn more about Lessing, Doris (May) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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