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Ebreo, Leone: see Abravanel, Judah.
Leoni, Leone, 1509-90, Italian sculptor and medalist, called Leone Aretino. Entering the service of the emperor, Charles V, he devoted himself to making statues, busts, and reliefs for the imperial family. His Charles V Repressing Violence and other works are in the Prado. His son, Pompeo Leoni, c.1533-1608, who worked with him, continued in the imperial service. His most important works were kneeling bronze figures of Charles V and Philip II, with their families, for the sanctuary in the Escorial. He executed many fine tomb monuments with figures at prayer, including two effigies now in the Hispanic Society, New York City.

See study by B. I. Proske (1956).

officially Republic of Sierra Leone

Country, western Africa. Area: 27,699 sq mi (71,740 sq km). Population (2007 est.): 5,866,000. Capital: Freetown. The Mende and Temne are the largest of about 18 ethnic groups. Languages: English (official), Krio (derived from English and a variety of African languages). Religions: Islam (predominantly Sunni), Christianity, traditional beliefs. Currency: leone. Sierra Leone has four physical regions: the coastal swamp; the Sierra Leone Peninsula, with thickly wooded mountains that rise from the swamps; the interior plains, consisting of grasslands and rolling wooded country; and the interior plateau and mountain regions. Wildlife includes chimpanzees, crocodiles, and many species of birds. The economy is based largely on agriculture and mining; rice, cassava, coffee, cacao, and oil palm are major crops, and diamonds, rutile, and bauxite are mined. Sierra Leone is a republic with one legislative house; the head of state and government is the president. The earliest inhabitants were probably the Bulom and Temne; Mande-speaking peoples began arriving in the 15th century. The coastal region was visited by the Portuguese in the 15th century, who built a fort near the site of modern Freetown. European ships visited the coast regularly to trade for slaves and ivory, and the English built trading posts on offshore islands in the 17th century. British abolitionists and philanthropists founded Freetown in 1787 as a private venture for freed and runaway slaves. In 1808 the coastal settlement became a British colony. The region became a British protectorate in 1896. It achieved independence in 1961 and became a republic in 1971. Since independence Sierra Leone experienced a series of military coups. An 11-year civil war, which was marked by horrific atrocities and further devastated the country, ended in 2002.

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Alvaro Pascual-Leone (born 7 August 1961 in Valencia, Spain) is a professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School, with which he has been affiliated since 1997. He is the Director of the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Program Director of the General Clinical Research Center of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.

Dr. Pascual-Leone obtained an M.D. and a Ph.D. in Neurophysiology from the Faculty of Medicine of Albert Ludwigs University in Germany. He also trained at the University of Minnesota and the US National Institutes of Health.

In 2000, he won the Daniel D. Federman Outstanding Clinical Educator Award.

Pascual-Leone lives in Wayland, Massachusetts with his wife Elizabeth and their three children.

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