City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 148,143), Tuscany region, central Italy, on the Ligurian Sea. Originally a fishing village, it came under Florentine rule in 1421. Cosimo I began construction of the Medici Harbour in the 16th century, and under Ferdinand I of Tuscany (1549–1609) the city became a haven for refugees. In the 18th century Leopold II enlarged the harbour and gave privileges to foreign merchants. Livorno became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. One of Italy's largest ports, it has extensive commercial activities and a large shipbuilding yard. Historic sites include a cathedral and a 16th-century fort.
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