leafhopper, common name for small, wedge-shaped leaping insects, cosmopolitan in distribution, belonging to the family Cicadellidae, which comprises some 5,500 species of insects. Some are brightly colored and others are green to brown; they generally measure less than 1/4 in. (6 mm) in length. Leafhoppers, and the family as a whole, attack a wide range of trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs. However, the nymphs and adults frequently suck the sap of only one or a few kinds of plants. Besides stunting plant growth by causing loss of sap, some leafhoppers introduce a toxin into the plant as they feed; others introduce disease organisms.

The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, is a serious pest in the E United States. It causes a disease commonly known as hopperburn on potatoes and damages many other plants, including apples, beans, and clover. As a result of the potato leafhopper's attack, the leaf's conducting tissue is plugged; the plant leaves curl and begin to turn brown near the tip, and eventually the whole leaf appears blighted. As many as 5 to 6 million leafhoppers may be found per acre. Other leafhopper pests include the beet leafhopper, which causes the beet disease known as curly top in the W United States; the grape leafhopper; the rose leafhopper; and the apple leafhopper.

Many leafhoppers have a single generation per year, but there may be several. They overwinter either in the adult or egg stage, depending on the species. Eggs are laid singly or a few at a time in stems and leaves. The adults overwinter only in the south; those migrating north each year cause much damage, but are usually killed by the frost.

Leafhoppers are classified in the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, order Homoptera, family Cicadellidae.

Red-banded leafhopper (Graphocephala)

Any of the small, slender, often beautifully coloured and marked sap-sucking insects of the large family Cicadellidae. There is a leafhopper species for almost every type of plant. Most are less than 0.5 in. (12 mm) long. Leafhoppers can be serious economic pests. Their feeding may remove sap, destroy chlorophyll, transmit disease, or curl leaves; they also puncture the host plant while laying eggs. Hopperburn is a diseased condition caused by their injection of a toxin into the plant as they feed.

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For alternate uses, see Nirvana (disambiguation).

Nirvana is a leafhopper genus belonging to the Nirvaninae subfamily and the tribe Nirvanini. Distinguishable from other leafhopper subfamilies by their uniquely shaped head and the presence of two preapical cells alone on the tegemen, they comprise some of the most beautiful and iridescent of the leafhoppers.

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