lard, hog's fat melted and strained from the tissues, an important byproduct of the meatpacking industry. The highest grade, leaf lard, is from the fat around the kidneys; the next best is from the back, and the poorest from the small intestines. Lard is classed by method of preparation as prime steam, rendered in a closed vessel into which steam is injected; neutral, melted at low temperature; kettle-rendered, heated with added water in steam-jacketed kettles; and dry-rendered, hashed, then heated in cookers equipped with agitators. Good lard melts quickly and is free from disagreeable odor. Pure lard (99% fat) is highly valued as a cooking oil because it smokes very little when heated.
Hippolyte André Jean Baptiste Chélard (February 1, 1789February 12 1861) was a French composer, violist, and conductor of the Classical era.

He was born in Paris and studied composition with Gosset and viola with Kreutzer. He won the 1811 Prix de Rome for his cantata Ariane.

He earned his living for much of his career as a violist at the Paris Opera. His 1827 opera Macbeth was a flop in Paris, but a great success in Munich. From that time on, he composed for the German market, his most popular work being Die Hunnenschlacht which premiered in Munich in 1835.

He died in Weimar, where he established himself as theater-conductor and in the 1840s he had met, and signed a contract dividing conducting duties with, the newly-arrived Franz Liszt.


  • Walker, Alan. Franz Liszt. v. 2. The Weimar years, 1848-1861. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. 1989, 1993. ISBN 0-8014-9721-3. Many references to Chélard.

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