is an involuntary mistake made while writing or speaking. According to Freud
, in his early psychoanalytic theory
it represents a missed deed that hides an unconscious
In literature there are a number of different lapsus depending on the mode of correspondence:
- Lapsus Linguae (pl. same): slip of the tongue.
- Lapsus Calami: slip of the pen. With the variation of Lapsus Clavis: slip of the typewriting
- Lapsus Manu: slip of the hand. Similar to Lapsus Calami.
- Lapsus Memoriae: slip of memory.
Types of Slips of the Tongue
Slips can happen on any level:
- Syntactic - is instead of was.
- Phrasal slips of tongue - I'll explain this tornado later.
- Lexical/semantic - moon full instead of full moon.
- Morphological level - workings paper
- Phonological (sound slips) - snow flurries becoming flow snurries
Additionally, each of these three levels of error may take various forms:
- Anticipations: Where an early output item is corrupted by an element belonging to a later one. Thus "reading list" - "leading list".
- Perseverations: Where a later output item is corrupted by an element belonging to an earlier one. Thus "waking rabbits" - "waking wabbits".
- Deletions: Where an output element is somehow totally lost. Thus "same state" - "same sate".
- Shift: Moving a letter. Thus "black foxes" - "back floxes".
- Haplologies: half one word and half the other. Thus "stummy" instead of "stomach or tummy". (Smith, 2003)