Land

Land

[land]
Land, Edwin Herbert, 1909-91, American inventor and photographic pioneer. While at Harvard, Land became interested in the properties and manipulation of polarized light. He left Harvard and, in 1932, created Polaroid J Sheet, a polarizing material that was inexpensive and easy to fabricate. In partnership with George Wheelwright, a Harvard physics instructor, Land in 1937 founded the Polaroid Corporation, where he adapted polarized materials for sunglasses, 3-D movies, and military use. In 1947 he demonstrated a single-step photographic process that enabled pictures to be developed in 60 seconds; a color process was marketed in 1963, and a self-developing positive print followed in 1973. In the original Land process, a negative material was exposed inside the camera and then drawn out, while being squeezed against a layer of reagent and a positive material. After 60 (later 10) seconds the layers could be separated and the negative discarded. In the current Polacolor process, light makes a series of latent images on appropriate dye layers of the film sheet; when the picture is ejected from the camera, processing reagent activates the image in these lower layers, which reaches final form after several minutes. The resulting print is protected by a hard plastic film. (See photographic processing.) Holder of more than 500 patents, Land founded the Rowland Institute of Science in 1960 and devoted his time to it after his retirement from Polaroid in 1980.

See biographies by S. McPartland (1993) and V. K. McElheny (1999).

land, in law, any ground, soil, or earth regarded as the subject of ownership, including trees, water, buildings added by humans, the air above, and the earth below. Private ownership of land does not exist in groups that live by hunting, fishing, or herding; e.g., in pre-Columbian times in America, the tribe owned the land, and each individual had equal access to it and equal rights to its use. In simple agricultural groups, as in early Europe, the village community made an annual allotment of land to individuals for cultivation. Similar allotments were made under the manorial system. A communal form of rural landholding persisted in Russia into the 20th cent. and still exists in India. The modern sovereign state asserts dominion over all property within its territorial limits, including the land, and by the right of eminent domain (see public ownership) can seize privately owned land for public use, with the proviso that the owner be justly compensated. In the former Soviet Union ownership of all land was vested in the nation outright, individuals and organizations being granted provisional rights to its use. Widely distributed private ownership of farmland has been regarded in Western countries as socially—if not always economically—advantageous. The concentration of landholding in a few hands has frequently led to political unrest and social upheaval, as in Latin America, Spain, Italy, the Middle East, and parts of Asia. In economics the term land is used to designate one of the main factors of production; it is another name for nature or natural resources. But few natural resources are free; farmland, for instance, is almost valueless without cultivation. In order to extract crops, minerals, and energy from the land, labor and capital must be applied. In economic theories of value, the share assigned to land as a factor in production is called rent.

See also public land; tenure; property.

See A. W. Griswold, Farming and Democracy (1948); G. Hallett, The Economics of Agricultural Land Tenure (1960); R. E. Megarry and H. W. R. Wade, The Law of Real Property (3d ed. 1966); A. W. Simpson, A History of the Land Law (2d ed. 1986).

Deliberate change in the way agricultural land is held or owned, the methods of its cultivation, or the relation of agriculture to the rest of the economy. The most common political objective of land reform is to abolish feudal or colonial forms of landownership, often by taking land away from large landowners and redistributing it to landless peasants. Other goals include improving the social status of peasants and coordinating agricultural production with industrialization programs. The earliest record of land reform is from 6th-century-BC Athens, where Solon abolished the debt system that forced peasants to mortgage their land and labour. The concentration of land in the hands of large landowners became the rule in the ancient world, however, and remained so through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The French Revolution brought land reform to France and established the small family farm as the cornerstone of French democracy. Serfdom was abolished throughout most of Europe in the 19th century. The Russian serfs were emancipated in 1861, and the Russian Revolution of 1917 introduced collectivization of agriculture. Land reform was instituted in a number of other countries where communists came to power, notably China. It remains a potent political issue in many parts of the world. Seealso absentee ownership.

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System by which land was held by tenants from lords. In England and France, the king was lord paramount and master of the realm. He granted land to his lords, who granted land to their vassals and so on down to the occupying tenant. Tenures were divided into free and unfree. Free tenure included tenure in chivalry, as in the case of knight service, and socage (tenure by agricultural service fixed in amount and kind). The main type of unfree tenancy was villenage, a limited form of servitude. Seealso feudalism, fief, landlord and tenant, manorialism.

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(1795–1814) Scheme to sell land in Georgia. After legislators were bribed to sell Georgia's western land claims around the Yazoo River to four land companies for $500,000, public anger forced a newly elected Georgia legislature to rescind the act (1796) and return the money. Much of the land had meanwhile been resold to third parties, who refused the money and maintained their claim to the property. The state ceded its claim to the U.S. in 1802. In 1810 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the 1796 rescinding law was an unconstitutional infringement on a contract. By 1814 the U.S. government assumed possession of the territory and awarded the claimants over $4 million.

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formerly Van Diemen's Land

Island (pop., 2007 est.: 491,666) and state, Australia. It is located off the southeastern corner of the continent and separated from it by Bass Strait; the state has an area of 26,410 sq mi (68,401 sq km) that also includes numerous smaller islands. Hobart is the capital. Originally inhabited by Australian Aboriginals, the island was explored and named Van Diemen's Land by Abel Janszoon Tasman in 1642. Taken by the British in the early 1800s and made a colony in 1825, it was used as an auxiliary penal settlement until the 1850s. It was granted self-government and renamed Tasmania in 1856; it became a state of the Australian Commonwealth in 1901. Chief economic activities include copper, zinc, lead, and silver mining; livestock raising, especially sheep for wool; and tourism. Several natural areas, collectively called the Tasman Wilderness, were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982 (extended in 1989).

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or Prince Rupert's Land

Historical region, northern and western Canada, comprising the drainage basin of Hudson Bay. In 1670 it was granted by King Charles II to the Hudson's Bay Co. It was named after Prince Rupert, the king's cousin and the company's first governor. In 1869 the land became part of the Dominion of Canada.

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Devotional cult of the buddha Amitabha. It is one of the most popular forms of Mahayana Buddhism in East Asia today. Pure Land schools believe that rebirth in the Western Paradise (the Pure Land) is given to all those who invoke Amitabha's name with sincere devotion. In China the Pure Land cult can be traced back to the 4th century, when the scholar Huiyuan (333–416) formed a society of monks and laymen who meditated on the name of Amitabha. His successors systematized and spread the doctrine in the 6th–7th century. The Pure Land teaching was transmitted to Japan by monks of the Tiantai school.

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(born May 7, 1909, Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.—died March 1, 1991, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. inventor and physicist. After briefly attending Harvard University, he cofounded the Land-Wheelwright Laboratories in Boston in 1932. Interested in light polarization, in 1932 he developed the polarizer (which he called the Polaroid J sheet), for which he envisioned numerous uses. By 1936, Land began to use types of Polaroid material in sunglasses and other optical devices. It was later used in camera filters and other optical equipment. In 1937 Land founded the Polaroid Corp. in Cambridge, Mass. In 1947 he demonstrated the revolutionary Polaroid Land Camera, which produced a finished print in 60 seconds; he introduced colour Polaroid film in 1963. His interest in light and colour resulted in a new theory of colour perception. He received more than 500 patents.

Learn more about Land, Edwin (Herbert) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Arabic Munazsubdotzsubdotamat al-Tahsubdotrīr al-Filastsubdotīniyyah

Umbrella political organization representing the Palestinian people in their drive for a Palestinian state. It was formed in 1964 to centralize the leadership of various groups. After the Six-Day War of 1967, the PLO promoted a distinctively Palestinian agenda. In 1969 Yāsir aynArafāt, leader of Fatah, the PLO's largest faction, became its chairman. From the late 1960s the PLO engaged in guerrilla attacks on Israel from bases in Jordan, from which it was expelled in 1971. PLO headquarters moved to Lebanon. In 1974 aynArafāt advocated limiting PLO activity to direct attacks against Israel, and the Arab community recognized the PLO as the sole legitimate representative of all Palestinians. It was admitted to the Arab League in 1976. In 1982 Israel invaded Lebanon and expelled PLO forces based there. In 1988 the PLO leadership, then based in Tunis, declared a Palestinian state and the following year elected aynArafāt its president. It also recognized Israel's right to exist, though several militant factions dissented. In 1993 Israel recognized the PLO by signing an agreement with it granting Palestinian self-rule in parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The PLO became an integral part of the Palestinian National Authority. Seealso Palestine; Lebanese civil war; Hsubdotamās; intifādsubdotah.

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biblical Canaan

Region, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. It extends east to the Jordan River, north to the border between Israel and Lebanon, west to the Mediterranean, and south to the Negev desert, reaching the Gulf of Aqaba. The political status and geographic area designated by the term have changed considerably over the course of three millennia. The eastern boundary has been particularly fluid, often understood as lying east of the Jordan and extending at times to the edge of the Arabian Desert. A land of sharp contrasts, Palestine includes the Dead Sea, the lowest natural point of elevation on Earth, and mountain peaks higher than 2,000 ft (610 m) above sea level. In the 20th and 21st centuries it has been the object of conflicting claims by Jewish and Arab national movements. The region is sacred to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Settled since early prehistoric times, mainly by Semitic groups, it was occupied in biblical times by the kingdoms of Israel, Judah, and Judaea. It was subsequently held by virtually every power of the Middle East, including the Assyrians, Persians, Romans, Byzantines, Crusaders, and Ottomans. It was governed by Britain under a League of Nations mandate from the end of World War I (1914–18) until 1948, when the State of Israel was proclaimed. Armies from Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, and Iraq attacked the next day. They were defeated by the Israeli army. See Israel, Jordan, West Bank, and Gaza Strip for the later history of the region.

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Russian Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa

Archipelago, northeastern Barents Sea. Consisting of about 190 islands, it is the northernmost territory of Russia and the most northerly land of the Eastern Hemisphere. With a land area of about 6,229 sq mi (16,134 sq km), the islands comprise a series of lowland plateaus, 85percnt of which is ice-covered. The Arctic climate supports polar bears and the Arctic fox, with numerous bird species. The Soviet Union annexed the islands in 1926 and maintained permanent weather stations there.

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(born May 7, 1909, Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.—died March 1, 1991, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. inventor and physicist. After briefly attending Harvard University, he cofounded the Land-Wheelwright Laboratories in Boston in 1932. Interested in light polarization, in 1932 he developed the polarizer (which he called the Polaroid J sheet), for which he envisioned numerous uses. By 1936, Land began to use types of Polaroid material in sunglasses and other optical devices. It was later used in camera filters and other optical equipment. In 1937 Land founded the Polaroid Corp. in Cambridge, Mass. In 1947 he demonstrated the revolutionary Polaroid Land Camera, which produced a finished print in 60 seconds; he introduced colour Polaroid film in 1963. His interest in light and colour resulted in a new theory of colour perception. He received more than 500 patents.

Learn more about Land, Edwin (Herbert) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Region, northeastern Northern Territory, Australia. It extends south from Van Diemen Gulf to the Gulf of Carpentaria and Groote Eylandt. Never fully explored, it has a total area of about 37,000 sq mi (96,000 sq km) and contains important bauxite and uranium mines. Occupied by Australian Aborigines since the late Pleistocene, it was visited in 1623 by the Dutch explorer Jan Carstensz, who named it for his ship. The name now primarily refers to its large Aboriginal reserve.

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Land's End (Cornish name: Penn an Wlas) is a headland on the Penwith peninsula, located near Penzance in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is the most westerly tip of the southern mainland (for Great Britain as a whole it is Corrachadh Mòr, Ardnamurchan, Scotland which is 22 miles further west). It is often thought to be the most southerly point in the British mainland, but that honour in fact falls to Lizard Point, a few miles to the south-east. Visible from Land's End is the Longships Lighthouse. The Longships, a few miles out, is a serpentine and quartz island. Offshore, midway between Land's End and the Isles of Scilly, is the supposed location of the mythical lost land of Lyonesse, referred to in Arthurian literature.

The name has a particular resonance because it is so often used in outlining the length of Britain when races, walks and charitable events take place between Land's End and the Scottish village John o' Groats (the most north-easterly settlement in mainland Britain). The phrase Land's End to John o' Groats is used both as a literal journey and as a metaphor for great or all-encompassing distance, similar to the American phrase coast to coast.

In 1769 The Antiquarian, William Borlase wrote that,

"Of this time we are to understand what Edward I. says (Sheringham. p. 129.) that Britain, Wales, and Cornwall, were the portion of Belinus, elder son of Dunwallo, and that that part of the Island, afterwards called England, was divided in three shares, viz. Britain, which reached from the Tweed, Westward, as far as the river Ex; Wales inclosed by the rivers Severn, and Dee; and Cornwall from the river Ex to the Land's-End".

In 1987 Peter de Savary purchased Land’s End. He had two new buildings erected and much of the present theme park development was instigated by him. He sold both Land's End and John o' Groats for an undisclosed sum to businessman Graham Ferguson Lacey in 1991.

The current owners purchased Land’s End in 1996 and formed a company named Heritage Attractions Limited.

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