From the founding of the University of Copenhagen in 1479, mathematics had been part of the Faculty of Philosophy. In 1850 it was moved to the new faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. The Institute for Mathematical Sciences was first created in 1934 next to the Niels Bohr Institute building, when Carlsberg Foundation donated money for a building in celebration of the 450th anniversary of the University of Copenhagen in 1929. In 1963 the institute moved to its current location.
Harald Bohr - the brother of physicist Niels Bohr - is one famous alumni of the department; his research in harmonic analysis and almost periodic functions in the 1930's laid the foundation for a huge drive in analysis. Most notably in the 1980, the department has been a frontrunner in the research of the more abstract parts of analysis, such as operator algebra and C*-algebra. From that period, researchers related to the department include
In continuation of this, the department today houses a center for non-commutative geometry.