, formerly Port Arthur,
former city, SW Liaoning prov., China, at the tip of the Liaodong peninsula. It was formerly combined with Dailian (Dairen) into the joint municipality of Lüda; it now is an adminstrative unit of Dalian. Lüshun is an important naval base dominating the entrance to the Bohai; it is also a southern terminus of the South Liaoning RR. The city was the administrative center of the Liaodong leasehold from 1898 to 1945 (see Liaoning
). As a Russian base (1898-1905), it was the site on Feb. 8, 1904, of the surprise Japanese naval attack that precipitated the Russo-Japanese War. The city passed to Japan by the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). In 1945 it became the headquarters of the Port Arthur Naval Base District under joint Sino-Soviet administration. China regained exclusive control in 1955.
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