The sacrum is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity, where it is inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones. Its upper part connects with the last lumbar vertebra, and bottom part with the coccyx (tailbone).
It is curved upon itself and placed obliquely (that is, tilted forward). It is kyphotic — that is, concave facing forwards. The base projects forward as the sacral promontory internally, and articulates with the last lumbar vertebra to form the prominent sacrovertebral angle. The central part is curved outward towards the posterior, allowing greater room for the pelvic cavity.
The sacrum articulates with four bones:
It is called the sacrum when referred to all of the parts combined, but sacral vertebrae when referred individually.
The sacrum is noticeably sexually dimorphic (differently-shaped in males and females).
In the female the sacrum is shorter and wider than in the male; the lower half forms a greater angle with the upper; the upper half is nearly straight, the lower half presenting the greatest amount of curvature. The bone is also directed more obliquely backward; this increases the size of the pelvic cavity and renders the sacrovertebral angle more prominent.
In the male the curvature is more evenly distributed over the whole length of the bone, and is altogether greater than in the female.
Sometimes the uppermost transverse tubercles are not joined to the rest of the ala on one or both sides, or the sacral canal may be open throughout a considerable part of its length, in consequence of the imperfect development of the laminae and spinous processes.
The sacrum also varies considerably with respect to its degree of curvature.
Significant Reduction in Risk of Falls and Back Pain in Osteoporotic-Kyphotic Women Through a Spinal Proprioceptive Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) Program
Jul 01, 2005; OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of intervention with a spinal weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO) and a spinal proprioceptive...