Japan occupied the region during the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed by Japan and China ending the war in April 1895, Japan gained full sovereignty of the area. However, within weeks, Germany, France and Russia pressured Japan to cede the territory back to China, in what was called the Triple Intervention.
In December 1897, Russian naval vessels entered Port Arthur harbor, which they began to use as a forward base of operations for patrols off of northern China, Korea and the Sea of Japan. In March 1898 Russia formally leased the region for 25 years from China. The leased area extended to the northern shore of Yadang Bay on the western side of the peninsula; on the eastern side it reached Pikou. The peninsula north of the lease was made a neutral territory in which China agreed not to offer concessions to other countries. In 1899, Russia founded the town of Dal'niy (meaning "distant" or "remote") which would later become Dalian (Dairen in Japanese).
Under the Portsmouth Treaty (1905) resulting from the Russo-Japanese War, Japan replaced Russia as leaseholder. Japan also obtained extraterritorial rights the regions north of the territory adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway in 1905 (the South Manchurian Railway Zone, which was extended to Changchun. These rights, along with the railway and several spur lines were passed to the corporation known as the South Manchurian Railway Company.
Japan established the to administer the new territory, and based the Kwantung Garrison to defend it and the railway. In negotiations with the Republic of China under the Twenty-One Demands, the terms of the lease were extended to 99 years, or until 1997.
After the foundation of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo in 1932, Japan regarded the sovereignty of the leased territory as transferred from China to Manchukuo. A new lease agreement was contracted between Japan and the government of Manchukuo, and Japan surrendered the surrender at the end of World War II in 1945.
|1||General Baron Yoshimasa Oshima (大島義昌)||1905-10-10||1912-04-26|
|2||Lieutenant General Yasumasa Fukushima (福島安正)||1912-04-26||1914-09-15|
|3||Lieutenant General Akira Nakamura (中村覚)||1914-09-15||1917-07-31|
|4||Lieutenant General Yujiro Nakamura (中村雄次郎)||1917-07-31||1919-04-12|
|5||Gonsuke Hayashi (林権助)||1919-04-12||1920-05-24|
|6||Isaburo Yamagata (山県伊三郎)||1920-05-24||1922-09-08|
|7||Hikokichi Ijuin (伊集院彦吉)||1922-09-08||1923-09-19|
|8||Hideo Kodama (児玉秀雄)||1923-09-26||1927-12-17|
|9||Kenjiro Kinoshita (木下謙次郎)||1927-12-17||1929-08-17|
|10||Masahiro Ota (太田政弘)||1929-08-17||1931-01-16|
|11||Seiji Tsukamoto (塚本清治)||1931-01-16||1932-01-11|
|12||Mannosuke Yamaoka (山岡万之助)||1932-01-11||1932-08-08|
|13||General Nobuyoshi Muto (武藤信義)||1932-08-08||1933-07-28|
|14||General Takashi Hishikari (菱刈隆)||1933-07-28||1934-12-10|
|15||General Jiro Minami (南次郎)||1934-12-10||1936-03-06|
|16||General Kenkichi Ueda (植田謙吉)||1936-03-06||1939-09-07|
|17||General Yoshijirō Umezu (梅津美治朗)||1939-09-07||1944-07-18|
|18||General Otozo Yamada (山田乙三)||1944-07-18||1946-08-28|