is the observation of a jugular venous pressure
(JVP, the filling of the jugular vein
) that rises with inspiration. It can be seen in some forms of heart disease
. It is usually indicative of right ventricular dysfunction along with hypotension and "dry lungs" (absence of pulmonary edema).
Ordinarily the JVP falls with inspiration due to reduced pressure in the expanding thoracic cavity
. Kussmaul's sign suggests impaired filling of the right ventricle
due to either fluid in the pericardial space or a poorly compliant myocardium or pericardium.
Possible causes of Kussmaul's sign include:
Kussmaul's sign is named after the German
doctor who first described it, Adolph Kussmaul
He is also credited with describing Kussmaul breathing
Fauci, Braunwald, Kasper, Hauser, Longo, Jameson & Loscalzo (2008). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (17th ed). McGraw Hill: Toronto, ON.