Knox

Knox

[noks]
Knox, Frank (William Franklin Knox), 1874-1944, U.S. Secretary of the Navy (1940-44), b. Boston. He joined the Rough Riders in the Spanish-American War and also served in World War I. Knox was general manager (1928-31) of the Hearst papers and after 1931 owner of the Chicago Daily News. A strong opponent of the New Deal, he was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for Vice President in 1936. In 1940, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, seeking to create national unity in defense preparations, made Knox Secretary of the Navy. He died in office and was succeeded by James V. Forrestal.
Knox, Henry, 1750-1806, American Revolutionary officer, b. Boston. He volunteered for service and went, in 1775, to Ticonderoga to retrieve the captured cannon and mortar there for use in the siege of Boston. The fortification of Dorchester Heights with this artillery compelled the evacuation of Boston by the British. From that time he was a trusted companion of George Washington. The artillery, under his charge, took a conspicuous part in the battles of Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and Yorktown. He commanded at West Point (1782-84) and was a founder (1783) of the Society of the Cincinnati. Knox was Secretary of War both under the Articles of Confederation and under the Constitution (1785-94). A conservative, he attempted to raise a force to oppose Shays's Rebellion, and he favored a strong federal government.

See biography by N. Callahan (1958).

Knox, John, 1514?-1572, Scottish religious reformer, founder of Scottish Presbyterianism.

Early Career as a Reformer

Little is recorded of his life before 1545. He probably attended St. Andrews Univ., where he may have become acquainted with some of the new Protestant doctrines. He entered the Roman Catholic priesthood, however, and from 1540 to 1544 was engaged as an ecclesiastical notary and as a private tutor.

By late 1545 Knox had attached himself closely to the reformer George Wishart. When, after Wishart's execution (1546), a group of Protestant conspirators took revenge by murdering Cardinal David Beaton, Knox, now definitely a Protestant, took refuge with them in St. Andrews Castle and preached in the parish church. Attacked by both Scottish and French forces, the castle was eventually surrendered (1547), and Knox served 19 months in the French galleys before his release (1549) through the efforts of the English government of Edward VI.

Knox spent the next few years in England, preaching in Berwick and Newcastle as a licensed minister of the crown and serving briefly as a royal chaplain. He helped to prepare the second Book of Common Prayer, but he declined a bishopric in the newly established Church of England.

Years in Exile

Shortly after the accession (1553) of the Catholic Mary I to the English throne, Knox went into exile on the Continent, living chiefly in Geneva and Frankfurt. In Geneva he consulted with John Calvin on questions of church doctrine and civil authority.

Meanwhile, through his frequent letters, he exerted considerable influence among Protestants in England and Scotland; in his "Faithful Admonition" pamphlet of 1554 he began to urge the duty of the righteous to overthrow "ungodly" monarchs. In 1555-56 he visited Scotland, preaching in private and counseling the Protestant congregations. After his return to Geneva, where he served (1556-58) as pastor to the English congregation, he wrote the First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment [i.e., regimen] of Women. That fiery tract was directed against the Catholic Mary of Guise, regent of Scotland, and Queen Mary of England, but it also alienated the Protestant Elizabeth I, who succeeded to the English throne in 1558.

The Scottish Reformation

In 1557 the Scottish Protestant nobles signed their First Covenant, banding together to form the group known as the lords of the congregation (see Scotland, Church of). When, in 1559, Mary of Guise moved against the Protestants, the lords of the congregation took up arms and invited Knox back from Geneva to lead them. Aided by England and by the regent's death in 1560, the reformers forced the withdrawal of the French troops that had come to Mary's aid and won their freedom as well as dominance for the new religion.

Under Knox's direction, a confession of faith (basically Calvinist) was drawn up (1560) and passed by the Scottish Parliament, which also passed laws abolishing the authority of the pope and condemning all creeds and practices of the old religion. The Book of Discipline, however, which provided an organizational structure for the new church, failed to get adequate approval from the nobles in 1561.

When Mary Queen of Scots arrived from France to assume her crown in the same year, many Protestant lords deserted Knox and his cause, and some even joined the queen. From his pulpit and in personal debates with Mary on questions of theology and the loyalty owed by the subject to his monarch, Knox stubbornly defied Mary's authority and thundered against her religion. The queen's marriage to Lord Darnley, her suspected complicity in his murder, and her hasty marriage to James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell, stirred the Protestant lords to revolt. Mary was forced to abdicate (1567) in favor of her young son, James VI. All the acts of 1560 were then confirmed, thereby establishing Presbyterianism as the official religion.

Despite the ill health of his last years, Knox continued to be an outspoken preacher until his death. It has been said of Knox that "rarely has any country produced a stronger will." His single-minded zeal made him the outstanding leader of the Scottish Reformation and an important influence on the Protestant movements in England and on the Continent, but the same quality tended to close his mind to divergent views. His History of the Reformation in Scotland, finished in 1564 but published in 1584 after his death, is a striking record of that conflict, but includes a number of misstatements and omissions resulting from his strong bias.

Bibliography

The standard edition of Knox's works is that edited by D. Laing (6 vol., 1846-64, repr. 1967). See biographies by E. S. C. Percy (1937, repr. 1965), J. G. Ridley (1968), and W. S. Reid (1974); J. S. McEwen, The Faith of John Knox (1961); S. W. Reid, Trumpeter of God (1974, repr. 1982); G. B. Smith and D. Martin, John Knox: Apostle of the Scottish Reformation (1982).

Knox, Philander Chase, 1853-1921, U.S. cabinet member, b. Brownsville, Pa. He built up a fortune as a corporation lawyer in Pittsburgh. He was Attorney General (1901-4) in the cabinets of Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. He was prominently identified with trust prosecutions, but failed to dissolve any significant organizations, except that of the Northern Securities Company, a railroad holding corporation. He served as U.S. Senator by appointment (1904-5) and was elected for the succeeding full term, but resigned in 1909 to become Secretary of State under President Taft. Continuing the policies of his predecessors, John Hay and Elihu Root, Knox sought to protect financial interests abroad, particularly in Latin America and China—a policy that became known as "dollar diplomacy." Knox returned to the Senate in 1917 and allied himself with those who fought ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and participation in the League of Nations.

See S. F. Bemis, ed., The American Secretaries of State, Vol. IX (1929, repr. 1963).

Knox, Ronald, 1888-1957, English theologian and author. He attended Eton and then Balliol College, Oxford, and in 1910 was ordained as an Anglican minister. Doctrinal preferences, however, led to his Roman Catholic ordination (1919) and appointment as Catholic chaplain at Oxford (1926). While chaplain, Knox wrote several detective novels until appointed to produce a new English Bible (complete ed. 1955). Other works include Spiritual Aeneid (1918), a defense of his adoption of Catholicism, and Enthusiasm (1950), a history of Christian sectarianism.
Knox, Fort: see Fort Knox.

(born May 6, 1853, Brownsville, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 12, 1921, Washington, D.C.) U.S. lawyer and politician. After admission to the bar in 1875 he became a successful corporation lawyer in Pittsburgh. As legal counsel for the Carnegie Steel Company, he helped organize the United States Steel Corp. (1900–01). Appointed attorney general by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt in 1901, he initiated several suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1904 to 1909. As secretary of state (1909–13) under Pres. William H. Taft, he helped develop the foreign policy of expanded U.S. investment later criticized as Dollar Diplomacy. During his second term in the Senate (1917–21), he opposed the formation of the League of Nations.

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(born May 6, 1853, Brownsville, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 12, 1921, Washington, D.C.) U.S. lawyer and politician. After admission to the bar in 1875 he became a successful corporation lawyer in Pittsburgh. As legal counsel for the Carnegie Steel Company, he helped organize the United States Steel Corp. (1900–01). Appointed attorney general by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt in 1901, he initiated several suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1904 to 1909. As secretary of state (1909–13) under Pres. William H. Taft, he helped develop the foreign policy of expanded U.S. investment later criticized as Dollar Diplomacy. During his second term in the Senate (1917–21), he opposed the formation of the League of Nations.

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John Knox, engraving from Icones, by T. Beza, 1580.

(born circa 1514, near Haddington, East Lothian, Scot.—died Nov. 24, 1572, Edinburgh) Scottish clergyman, leader of the Scottish Reformation and founder of Scottish Presbyterianism. Probably trained for the priesthood at the University of St. Andrews, he was ordained in 1540. He joined a group of Protestants who fortified St. Andrews Castle, but they were captured by French Catholics and carried away into slavery in 1547. Released through English intervention in 1549, he spent four years preaching in England, where he influenced developments in the Church of England. With the accession of the Catholic Mary I, he fled to the Continent. He served as pastor at Frankfurt am Main and Geneva until his return to Scotland in 1559. In England, Elizabeth I made common cause with the Scottish Presbyterians, lest the French gain control of Scotland to support its Catholic monarch, Mary, Queen of Scots. Knox survived conflicts with Mary and spent the rest of his life in setting up the Presbyterian church.

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(born July 25, 1750, Boston, Mass.—died Oct. 25, 1806, Thomaston, Maine, U.S.) American Revolutionary officer. Active in the colonial militia, he joined the Continental Army and was sent by George Washington to transport British artillery captured in the Battle of Ticonderoga. In mid-winter, he oversaw the transport of 120,000 lbs (55,000 kg) of artillery by oxen and horses over snow and ice 300 mi (480 km) to Boston. Promoted to general, he commanded the artillery in the battles of Monmouth and Yorktown, and in 1783 he succeeded Washington as commander of the army. He was secretary of war under the Articles of Confederation from 1785 to 1789 and served as the first U.S. secretary of war from 1789 to 1795.

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U.S. military reservation, northern Kentucky, U.S., southwest of Louisville. Occupying an area of 110,000 acres (44,510 hectares), it was established in 1918 as Camp Knox and became a permanent military post in 1932. The U.S. Gold Bullion Depository, a bombproof structure protected by elaborate security devices, was built there in 1936 to hold the bulk of the country's gold. Since 1940 it has been the U.S. Army Armor Headquarters and the site of associated training schools.

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John Knox, engraving from Icones, by T. Beza, 1580.

(born circa 1514, near Haddington, East Lothian, Scot.—died Nov. 24, 1572, Edinburgh) Scottish clergyman, leader of the Scottish Reformation and founder of Scottish Presbyterianism. Probably trained for the priesthood at the University of St. Andrews, he was ordained in 1540. He joined a group of Protestants who fortified St. Andrews Castle, but they were captured by French Catholics and carried away into slavery in 1547. Released through English intervention in 1549, he spent four years preaching in England, where he influenced developments in the Church of England. With the accession of the Catholic Mary I, he fled to the Continent. He served as pastor at Frankfurt am Main and Geneva until his return to Scotland in 1559. In England, Elizabeth I made common cause with the Scottish Presbyterians, lest the French gain control of Scotland to support its Catholic monarch, Mary, Queen of Scots. Knox survived conflicts with Mary and spent the rest of his life in setting up the Presbyterian church.

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James K. Polk, daguerreotype by Mathew Brady, 1849.

(born Nov. 2, 1795, Mecklenburg county, N.C., U.S.—died June 15, 1849, Nashville, Tenn.) 11th president of the U.S. (1845–49). He was a friend and supporter of Andrew Jackson, who helped Polk win election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1825. He left the House in 1839 to become governor of Tennessee. At the deadlocked 1844 Democratic Party convention Polk was nominated as the compromise candidate; he is considered the first dark-horse presidential candidate. A proponent of western expansion, he openly laid claim to the whole territory that extended as far north as latitude 54° 40' with the slogan “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” (see Oregon Question). Elected at the age of 49, the youngest president to that time, he successfully concluded the Oregon border dispute with Britain (1846) and secured passage of the Walker Tariff Act (1846), which lowered import duties and helped foreign trade. He led the prosecution of the Mexican War, which resulted in large territorial gains but reopened debate over the extension of slavery. His administration also established the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Naval Academy, and the Smithsonian Institution; oversaw revision of the treasury system; and proclaimed the validity of the Monroe Doctrine. Though an efficient and competent president and deft in his handling of Congress, he was exhausted by his efforts and did not seek reelection; he died three months after leaving office.

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(born July 25, 1750, Boston, Mass.—died Oct. 25, 1806, Thomaston, Maine, U.S.) American Revolutionary officer. Active in the colonial militia, he joined the Continental Army and was sent by George Washington to transport British artillery captured in the Battle of Ticonderoga. In mid-winter, he oversaw the transport of 120,000 lbs (55,000 kg) of artillery by oxen and horses over snow and ice 300 mi (480 km) to Boston. Promoted to general, he commanded the artillery in the battles of Monmouth and Yorktown, and in 1783 he succeeded Washington as commander of the army. He was secretary of war under the Articles of Confederation from 1785 to 1789 and served as the first U.S. secretary of war from 1789 to 1795.

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Knox is a city in Center Township, Starke County, Indiana, United States. The population was 3,721 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Starke County. The city was founded in 1851 and is named after General Henry Knox. Knox was the home of two-time Indiana Governor Henry F. Schricker.

Geography

Knox is located at (41.294159, -86.622625), along the Yellow River.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.9 square miles (10.2 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,721 people, 1,466 households, and 961 families residing in the city. The population density was 947.3 people per square mile (365.6/km²). There were 1,586 housing units at an average density of 403.8/sq mi (155.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.29% White, 0.11% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, and 1.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.28% of the population.

There were 1,466 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.4% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, and 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,891, and the median income for a family was $35,615. Males had a median income of $30,585 versus $20,994 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,184. About 11.9% of families and 15.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.9% of those under age 18 and 12.6% of those age 65 or over.

Postcards from Buster

The PBS Kids TV show Postcards from Buster filmed their first show here. It is called "Meet Me At the Fair." Buster, the main character on the show, became friends with Lauren and Nathan.

References

External links

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