Definitions

knob cone pine

Closed-cone pine forest

Closed-cone pine forest is a plant community of coastal California and several offshore islands. It consists of stands of closed-cone pines, which rely on fire to open their cones and release the seeds. The most widespread naturally of the closed-cone pines is Bishop Pine (Pinus muricata), which can be found along the coast from Humboldt County, California in the north to the northwestern corner of Baja California in the south. Knobcone Pine (Pinus attenuata) forests can occur further inland, on dry, rocky soils. Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata) was once limited to the Monterey Peninsula, two other sites in central California, and Guadalupe and Cedros Islands off the coast of Baja California, but has now been introduced elsewhere in California and around the world.

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