Various types of kites
exist, ranging from materials, shape, usage, skill required to operate, and so on. A modified parachute that has a positive lift/drag ratio
is a kite. A tethered body that does gain a positive lift/drag ratio upon being towed in some media is a kite. Kites have their wing
body and kite line; the kite line is moored to a fixed or moving body which even could be the kite line itself; the moving body could be a falling payload or human pilot as in some hang gliders. Kites of very low stable lift/drag ratio are only rarely treated as kites, but as streamers and flags
. Kites may fly in air
or fly in water
or other media. A deflection off the direction of the ambient stream obtains because of the shape of the kite's wing. New types of kites continue to be invented and designed.
Dominant material typing
are often classified by the dominant material that is used to make the main body of the kite (plastic
, animal skin, wood
, metal foil, synthetic textile
, rip-stop nylon
). Some kiters pride themselves for being successful in making the main kite body all out of exactly one type of material (excusing glues, bonding agents, bridle lines); a Styrofoam-only kite
, an aluminum-foil-only Rogallo
kite, a paper-only kite, an ice-only kite, a balsa-wood-only kite, for examples. However, mixed-material kites may have a dominant material but with some other secondary materials; these are more usual; a kite that is dominant with tissue paper
may have various kinds of stiffening framing sticks that are not tissue paper but perhaps made of rattan
, tree wood, fiberglass
, carbon fiber
, sandwiched aerogel
, plastic drinking straws
, metal, grass-only or other. Sellers have categorized to "paper kites" or to "plastic kites" indicating the dominant material.
Kites vary by the nature of the main wing part (monoplane, flexible sail, stiffened flexible sail, rigid wing, biplane, multiplane, ram-air inflated, closed bladder gas inflated, rotating wing , object mimic (of animals, birds, boats, airplanes, insects, people, places, things)). For example, the main body of the kite--the wing part--may be made up of inflated gas bladders to give endless shapes; here are three references toward that kind of wing: ; and ; and Such closed-bladder inflated wings differ from open-cell ram-air inflation like the Domina Jalbert parafoil kite; also open single-surface flexible sails are often stated as being simply inflated by the wind.
The wing of the kite is also characterized as to its aspect ratio
. Low-aspect ratio kites are tall compared to the front width of the kite's wing. High-aspect ratio kites have wings that are wide compared to their height or depth.
Also, the wing character construction type is frequently distinguished: stick-and-sail, monolithic solid (foam, wood, metal, plastic), inflated bladder, monocoque, highly trussed, or sail-only soft fully flexible; or the construction would be a hybrid mix of fundamental construction types. Finally, typing wing character is typed by level of crafsmanship from low to high.
Number of sub-kite units in the kite system or team display
A kite may be made of a single wing or may be made of several wings or several sub-kite units; in such cases, the literature denotes several types of kite trains and coteries. A collection of kites in a kite system being flown as one system or one collection has its own challenges. Perhaps the most famous kite system type with multiple sub-kite units is the dragon kite. Also man-lifting kites have used a collection of kites to net the lift desired to lift one or more persons. Miniature kites or larger kites may be connected in various ways to make one kite system. The arrangement patterns are important: train, chain of unit kites each of which has its own main tether, chain, coterie, single-branching, multiple branching, and combinations of patterns. When a kite train is bi-anchored (various angles to the wind), then a rainbow arch pattern can be formed; these arch kite trains are frequently seen at kite festivals. The "Ladder" mill dynamic kite chain system is seriously being proposed for utility-level electricity generation . World-records for the number of kites in a kite train in the literature. Teams of people are frequently used to fly kites of high-count sub-kite units.
When the kite system's unit kites are controlled by a team of kite pilots in one integral display, then the number of team pilots and the number of kites are noted. Two-pilot teams, three-pilot teams, etc. A large team might tow one very large kite. A team like The Flying Squad of nine kite pilots might fly each their own sub-kite while as a team they display their kites in unified displays One pilot might simultaneously pilot several kites at once; the pilot with the several kites form one kite system of say two or three or more kites in the system. ;
A kite train using a single main line to which sub-kite units are attached is one pattern; however, two through lines can be the base for sub-units. Three lines. Or more. A stack of parafoil kites is a fairly common kite train; Dave Culp was one early pioneer in tugging boats with stacks of parafoil kites; one of his was a 5-stack of Flexifoil kites Parafoil stacks have been with over 200 kite units.
Kites vary based on their dominant application (play, recreation, art, meditation, exercise, industrial, fishing, mining, electricity generating, underwater military, sport, advertising, transportation of passengers, cargo transport, seeding vehicle, tug, weapon, fighting, night operations, fishing, mechanical power for running machines or performing tasks, sport or survival fishing, aerial photography
, taxi, competition over art or aerobatics, performance art, bridge-building, air-sampling, antenna acting, signaling, billboard, messaging, rescue, entertainment, art-teaching, craft-teaching, aerodynamics-teaching, beacon, attention-attracting, gift, meditation, speed racing, fetching, dropping, artistic ballet, loudspeaker lofter, logging crane, and more).
Kites vary based on relative buoyancy
: lighter than air
or heavier than air
; lighter than the medium in which it interacts for lift or heavier than the medium in which it interacts. The kytoon is a kite that is often lighter than air (using hydrogen or helium gas) that in insufficient winds to stay aloft by its kite lifting qualities will nevertheless stay aloft by its lighter-than-are balloon qualities. There are also heavier-than-air balloon kites or kytoons; these are usually filled with air and not helium or hydrogen; these kite, but do not stay aloft without a relative wind for the kiting, whereas lighter-than-air kytoons stay aloft when the wind is insufficient for kiting alone to give adequate lift. Similar devices for other media like water occur (water buoys that water kite in stream while being anchor to the bottom of the stream or other submerged anchor) What is said of air regards other media like water or other-than-air media as referenced by Dave Culp, kite expert, in his 21st century KiteShip patent .
Underwater kites or hydro kites have the same typing about buoyancy. When the underwater kite is less dense than water, then when the kite is not flying down, the kite wing will float up; alternatively, controls may invert so lift is up even while the light-than-water kite is also rising for such buoyancy. Differently, when the kite is more dense than water and it stops flying under control, the kite wing will sink. When the kite system has buoyancy controls, then--flying or not--the direction of the non-towed kite can be controlled. A tailing buoy that is a lighter-than-water water kite examples a water kite anological to the air-kite lighter-than-air kytoons and Helikite (Helium kite).
Kites can be typed by virtue of control method of the motion of the kite's wing body (single-line, dual-line, three-line control, four-line control, n#-line control, radio-controlled, mixed-type control, fused-controls, laser control, torque-line control, part-breakage control, powered controls, aerodynamic controls). Is there a robot on board the kite main body that alters the bridle or kite's surface or kite's boundary layer flows to control the flying of the kite? Is there a person on board the kite's main body to control the kite's motions; Dave Culp describes Kite Tugs with crews of people on the kite or kytoon to control the kite's tugging of commercial cargo ships to reduce fuel costs in shipping. Is there animal or plant life on board the main kite body that are used to control the motion of the kite? Are there instruments on board that react with wind, tension, sun, temperature, moisture, or ambient media density, or some other characteristics of the flowing medium (often air) in order to control he motion or shape of the kite for some special purpose? Hobby and science kiters have placed hundreds of devices on the kite line and kite body that are controllers of special actions (turning on lights, making electricity, dropping objects, moving an aerodynamic flap to give motion to the kite, taking aerial photographs, collecting air samples, for examples). Are there realtime video cams and other sensors on board that feed data to a remote human or robot pilot for control purposes? Is there on board an expert program servomechanism that controls the kite motion according to that expert program. Kite-based electricity-generating systems employ such expert programs. Thermodynamic kite Guy H. Kennedy, Jr.
There are controllable sport kites or stunt kites, but then there are levels of precision: trick kites; further along the line of control in stunt kites are precision kites. Four-line Rev kites provide a type of kite that can give very high precision for moving the kite.
Will a kite return to a designed or desired flight mode or position after being disturbed by a gust or kite operator control action? How large of a gust can be tolerated? How large of a control disturbance can be experienced by the kite with the result that the kite returns to the flight mode desired? These are questions of stability. Kites are frequently typed by stability measures. Why a kite needs a tail.
Unstable kite wings do not return to designed modes after being disturbed by certain amounts. Buffeting, bending, breaking, morphing are some of things that occur during a disturbance that may prevent a kite from returning to desired flight mode. A kite might become locked into a crashing direction if the wing experiences a certain disturbance; the altered stability---stable in the crashing mode is not helpful, unless one wants the crash to occur for some peaceful or military purpose; kited hang glider pilots learn to cut loose from being towed when a lock-out begins. Pitch & Lockout Limiter
+ + Kite Balance and Stabily by NASA.
And: Kite stability criteria
Kytooning for stability: Kite stability and weight Gerald Alexander Richard Allsopp
Fighter kites are unstable by choice and design; the high instability is an asset for the purpose; the kites are single-lined; the single-line and the high instability permit speed for chosen directions of flight obtained by judicious pulling. Oppositely, there are times, places, and purposes where very high stability is wanted; holding a camera Fundamentals of Kite Aerial Photography or defense communications antenna in a non-accelerating stable position has kite system designers choose a kite design that is very stable Box kites, a brief history Between the extremes of stability is a continuum of stability that is used in kiting in air, underwater, and in other flight media. Staying up in the air or in mid-river stream without deviation from the location wanted if favorable to some purposes; a parent giving a first kite to a child may want a very stable kite.
A kite may have a mixed stability character; a kite that is unstable in the center of the media stream but may be so designed that after going out say to the left from center stream a certain distance, it will almost always return toward center and over to the left of center--an example of cyclic stability--repeating the cycle over and over; overall, such a kite is stable for that kind of performance: back and forth without end; this can be a small wobble or a large cycling; unstable for center quiet, but stable for a certain predictable cyclic motion; such an unstably-stable kite has its set of purposes from entertainment to generating electricity. Stability in the rotating mode is used in rotating kites; the wings have a high probability of staying in the rotating mode. Autorotation}}
The kind of instability that will surely drive a kite into the ground or unwanted location no matter what the kite operator does is a self-defeating kind of instability.
A kite can be designed to stay quiet in a smooth stream at a specific point off stream center and at a certain elevation. When the wind changes in direction or strength or gustiness, then stabilizing the kite's position by design is possible.
Kites with multiple control lines vary the position of the kite in the media stream (air, water, etc.) by varying the stability of the kite; at once the kite is stable for a certain action; in the next moment of control, the kite becomes stable for a new and different action.
Various mechanisms are used to obtain various kinds of stability: tails, empennages, control lines, sweeps, dihedrals, billows, out-riggers, gyroscopes, radio-controlled aerodynamic surfaces, reacting onboard robots, skyhooking with lighter-than-media floats, shape, reaction shaping, morphing, tensioning, and de-tensioning.
Kites are sometimes typed for their artistic quality. The artistic quality might be for the kite's artistic motions, artistic in-air appearance for shaped art or applied art. The art involved for non-flying art-use purposes attract people to decorate home walls and upper spaces in rooms with hung non-flying kite bodies...with or without the other kite part: the kiteline. Any level of visual art may be involved. Sound art made by the kite has been explored. Radiated sound art and artistic music coming from the kite body or kite line example a way to type kites. Good Orient in Spring Kites (artistic Chinese kites)
Kites are sometimes typed by who made the kite, such as whether it is a Hi-Flier
kite, a one-of-a-kind William Eddy kite, from a hobbyist, and so on. Dealers and auctioned kites go to extra effort to claim authenticity for Revolution type kites; that is, an extra statement is made to firm the fact that the offered kite is made by the inventor's company or via permissions. Users of powerkites pride themselves for having a kite made by certain kite makers, perhaps an individual (e.g. Jim Rowland large figure kites, author of Big Book of Kites (1988), and One-Hour Kites (1989)) or a corporation. Extreme sport kite fliers may favor a kite from one manufacturer over another; opinions and field talk will exhibit pride, prejudice, and analysis; product reviews abound in kite forums; the manufacturers gain reputations. Kite Trade Association International (KTAI)
is not restricted to manufacturers, but includes members that deal products made by others. British Kite Surfing Association
The hang gliders that are true kites are made by members of the Hang Glider Manufacturers Association (HGMA)
Ambient flow media
A kite reacts with an ambient media, usually earth air; however, NASA is planning kites for non-air atmosphere on Mars and other planets. The ambient flow media for space kites is plasma or photon streams like the streams from the sun. Water kites or hydro kites have water as the ambient flow media. Soil kites have soil as the ambient flow media. Towed kites through solids or semi-solids bring other media into focus. If a kite "flies" in a food or chemical vat or a husbandry tank of bacteria or algae, then the chemical soup is the ambient media. So, a kite can be typed by its media; air kites are very common; but air certainly is not the only important ambient flow media that humans use for kite systems and applications.
- [[Soil kite
- Water kite
- Plasma kite
- Air kite
- Mars atmosphere is less dense than Earth's air. Kytoons which are kites are considered for Mars. Other kites will have some uses on Mars.
Kites can be typed by the level of actuality involved with the kite. Is the kite only described in fictional literature? Is the kite only depicted in a drawing and not in any materialization?
The toy kite has been--in generalized terms--inducted in the Strong National Museum of Play's all-star lineup along with such items as the bicycle. Is the kite only in the imagination of a person evidenced by talking or writing? Is the kite possible? Is the kite actualizable or not, feasible or not, possible or impossible? Is the kite finished or unfinished? Is the kite broken or with flying-potential integrity? Did the kite once materially exist, but not has no materialized extant samples? No one has yet built and flown a Domina Jalbert parfoil kite that is a square mile in bottom-surface area; such a kite is possible, but has not yet been actualized; the kite is in the imagination and can be visualized; the same can be drawn schematically or be illustrated in a computer program. Is the kite in a cartoon video with virtual presence? Is the kite living only in the dreams of a sports-kite competitor? Is the kite only on the drawing boards of a kite manufacturer? Is the kite a part of a fictional legendary story? Speculative kites, dream kites, hope kites, and what-if kites arrive in the conversations at kite clubs, kite-trade association meetings, on the kite fields, in kite forums, and in engineering rooms; these non-material kites are the roots for future materialized and used kites.
Kites are frequently typed by price. Entry-level kites are often in a lower-priced category. Beginner make-your kites invite creativity at low cost
Low-cost kites, medium priced kites, expensive kites, and priceless kites show up in the literature
hobby kitemakers have published making kites at the right price: free...by using materials from the ambient environment of natural materials and human discards and trash. Over $100,000 commercial tug kite systems are now fact. NASA
prided themselves for making a Charles Richard Paresev
manned kite-hanging-pilot kite glider for a little over $4,000 in 1961
and respecting such as a low-cost success compared to other aircraft NASA had made.
Free kites arrive to the receiver in many ways. Promotional free kites, party-favor mini kites, gifted kites, found lost kites, kites made from found materials.
A sector of kite culture surrounds each size category. There are particular challenges, opportunities, applications, and solutions in each size sector. Some kite contests have largest and smallest flying-kite events. There is a following of the world's largest kite.
Nano-sized, microscopic, tiny, miniature, small, large, giant, and enormous. David A. Culp's recent U.S. patent indicates his expertise as he filed for claims for his kite over all size ranges and in any fluid including a plasma kite.
Number of sticks
- Zero or no-stick kites form a very special cateory of kites (Rogallo parawing, Jalbert parafoil, Barish sailwing, Culp KiteShip (tm) or KiteSail (tm), single-sheet of paper kites, Playsail). The kite literature refers to kites in this category mostly as simply flexible-wing kites. Gertrude and Francis M. Rogallo invented the fully flexible wing and applied it for kites, hang glider kites, parachute kites, and other aircraft types. Included in "no-stick" type of kite is the no-stick inflated kites.
- One-stick kites form a particularly interesting category of kites as they share flexible-wing kite properties as well as gaining assets from some stiffening (keeled Flexikite, keeled flexwing, one-stick stiffened rotary Magnus-effect kite).
- Two-stick kites : regular hexagon kite, irregular hexagon kite.
- Three-stick kites
- Four-stick kites
- Five-stick kites Bermudian five-stick traditional kites. KITE CONTROL MECHANISM R. L. MAYNE has an invention for the five- or six-stick flat kites.
- Six-stick kites. Single-cell tetrahedron kite. The six-stick kite was the foundation of Alexander Graham Bell's tetrahedral kites. Hexagonal kites are made with three sticks or six spars .
Number of control lines
Kites are referenced or typed by the number of control lines that operate the kite. The number can be from one to very high count. Fighter kite contests often allow only single-lined unpowered kites without radio-control of the kite. Bridle lines are not intended here. Two-line sport or stunt kites occur for rigid-framed and soft kites. A radio-controlled kite having a single kite line has the radio signals control servo-mechanisms at the kite wing similar to free-flight radio-control scale aircraft. Smart on-board computers can read parameters of a high-flying kite and adjust angle of attack and other parameters, yet the kite system has only one kite line. Arch kites of the rainbow style (long rotary, segmented, collection of unit sub-kites) most often have two anchorings of the tether; however there is nothing stopping having three or more tetherings to the same one long arch kite or arch bow or arch train or arch chain. The Wright brothers kited their would-be glider with two control lines at times. Three control lines have been used in kiting hang-gliding kite students, but often just two or one line. KiteShip shows three control lines with computer and human-over-ride controlling of the lines.
Mooring typing (or towed-by typing or anchor type)
Main article: Kite mooring
Here are some of the common mooring types: Towed (moored to or anchored in) by a powered airplane, microlight aircraft, humans, ships, boats, power boats, horses, bicycled humans, skateboarded humans, buggys, landboarded humans, kitesurfing boarded humans, snowboarded humans, ground staked, tree staked, earth-anchored, pole-attached, high-bar attached, wind tunnel holder, balloon, falling human, falling payload, towed human, towed payload, catapult.
Each kite that is flying has at least one tether; that set of tethers are moored to something that is fixed or mobile relative to the ambient stream of air (or other media in which a kite flies, like water, other gas, plasma, soil, gel, aggregate). Depending on the flying media, purpose, and mooring situation, changes in kite design and operation occur. The mooring could be another kite flying in a distinct-enough media stream to provide a coupling with the first kite so that the double-kite system operates up to designed purposes; kitesurfing is of this type where the lower kite is a water-kiting board; Richard Miller in Without Visible Means of Support
(Los Angeles, printed by Parker, 1967) described a double-kite system where the upper kite flew in the jet stream
and the lower kite flew outside the jet stream; the hydrofoil water kite is being employed coupled with power air kites as a new extreme sport activity; the kiteskier has the lower kite as a water kite--the ski board; kitesailing is a double kite system with the lower kite being a water-kite of some sort: boat, board, hydrofoil, ski. Kitesailing International, December, 1988
Wing loading or sail loading
A kite flies with a loading on its wing of so many ounces or pounds per unit of area. Small toy kites or indoor kites are low-sail-loaded kites. Cargo-tug kites are highly sail-loaded. Kites being flown in water are highly wing-loaded
kites. Depending on the application, designers will select kites by the wing loading
needed to fulfill purposes. Manufacturers will frequently specify the range of wing loading for which the kite will maintain the integrity of its structure. Sail loading
can be computed from other parameters. Sail loading changes when airspeed
and angle of attack
Typing by named category
- Advertising kites. Ad kites. These kites hold advertisements, logos of organizations, slogans for causes. Huge orders of mass-produced kites imprinted with an advertisement forms a significant part of kite commerce.
- Aerial photography platform kites WindMueller Aerology Lab
- Airplane mimic kite ; ; ; ;
- ARC kites. Peter Lynn kites. PeterLynn ARC set-up FAQ
- Arch kite-multiple-kite arch where one or more lines holds many kites in one sky arch: rotary two-anchor rainbow arch or/and static two-anchor rainbow arch. If the kites making up the arch kite rotate using the Magnus effect then the term also applied is rainbow kite or just bow kite or kite bow or "sky bow" or SkyBow (tm); one form of the rotaing arch or rainbow kite is the ribbon kite in one segment or multiple segments; swivers in the line are important. Distinguish between a long arching collection of kites in a bow or rainbow pattern from the power kite called bow kite.
- Aquaglider or Aqua-glider: These various-formed manned kites were kited behind tow boats over water. ) Air Force Lt. Col. Bill Skliar in 1959 designed a biplane kite glider nicknamed Bayou Bird Sailplane Directory. Biplane manned kite towed over water in 1959.+. In 1961 Tom H.Purcell designed and flew an aluminum-framed Fleep-like Rogallo hang glider kite over land; in 1962 he kited the same wing but pontooned while over water; his effort was imaged and noted in Skysurfer Magazine in its May/June issue of 1973, published by EAA inductee Michael Markowski, author of Hang Glider's Bible. The 1962 Mike Burns SkiPlane and 1963 Dickenson wings highly matched the Purcell, Barry Hill Palmer, and the Charles Richard NASA Paresev 1B wing; minor control sticks derived from the triangle control frame were used in each of these kites which sometimes glided. These kites towed high could stop their kiting and release into glides. See list "B" for boats that have a major operating sector as a kite (for one, a 1930 Peel Glider Boat)
- Arch kite -single kite with arch form: ; ; Concave parabolic arch kite Peter J. Pearce et al; ; and Monocoque arched kite Peter J. Pearce; multiple arch: Kite; (arch top) Peg Top
- Art kites as images-only: Video kites, kites on photographs, fine-art illustrations holding kite images, paintings, sculptures, flight-simulator images of kites. engineering drawings, sewing plans, drawings on kite plans, story illustrations in children's books, patent drawings. Kites in Art A Genevieve Lytton graphic card showed fancy dress ball costume involving hexagon kite with tail and string reel: Genevieve Lytton as "The Kite"
- Art-holding kites: These kites carry art either on their wing or wing's tail, or as kite line laundry. * Artistic flying kites: These kites are artistic in their totality as flying sculpture. These kites win kite festival events that focus on artistic qualities.
- Asymmetrical kites. The common practice of kite designing and making includes an aim to have the left and right sides of the kite's wing be mirror images of each other for symmetrical balance. A collection of builders are exploring designs that are without that left-right symmetry, but are asymmetrical. Special challenges are involved in producing successful asymmetrical kites.
The Joy of Making Both Art and Kites
- Balloon kite heavier-than-air, full kite wing is balloon, but shaped for kiting.
- Balloon kite heavier-than-air, major element of kite wing is balloon, but not all.
- Balloon kite light-than-air with kite wing all balloon.
- Balloon kite light-than-air with kite wing with major element balloon, but with large non-balloon wing parts. KITE BALLOON Domina C. Jalbert, filed 1944.
- Balloon kite of the ballooning spiderlings; this kite is not a mechanical balloon but s collection of spider silk threads that are used for dispersal of spiders. Richard Miller in 1967 in book Without Visible Means of Support described the mechanics of the double kite system where the upper kite lifts and drags in coupling with the lower kite that lifts downwards and drags; the common kite line results in a net kiting system in free-flight. In the 1800s Hiram Stevens Maxim in his chapter on Flying Kites observed the kiting of spiders; biologists used the misleading "ballooning" term which has stuck through time. Bug hunter Darrell Ubick correctly recognized that ballooning spiders actually are kiting as noted by author Pamela S. Turner in Super-powered spiders. In Tales with Tails: Storytelling the Wonders of the Natural World by Kevin Strauss at three places (pages 184, and 185 and 187), shows correct understanding of the kiting of the ballooning spider (as no true balloon is ever made). Three staffers of Straight Dope Science Advisory Board in Are cobwebs made by spiders? recognized the kiting of the ballooning spiders. Pest control company details spiders and they recognize that it is kiting that is done by instars (spiderlings) even though the historical term is ballooning. The Rare Species Conservatory affirm that ballooning spiders actually do not balloon but kite.
- Barrage balloon was a kytoon.
- Barrage kite Sausage kite balloons.
- Balloon kite This applies to both lighter than air and heavier-than air type of kite. The lighter-than-air type balloon kite is the kytoon that operates aloft whether or not the wind blows; when the kytoon is not kiting, it at least floats aloft as a pure balloon; but when it is kiting, it is a true kite. Kytoons are often used to loft radio communications antenna, rescue signals, and kite-line laundry.
- Barish sailwing David Barish; and his patent: BARISH GLIDE WING David T. Barish, US Patent 3480238 Filing date: Feb 27, 1967. Issue date: Nov 1969.
- Beginner kites. Kites of this type are separated by sellers, makers, and leaders.
- Bell kites Alexander Graham Bell Wheel kite, 1908; ___ Bell Kite Project;___ Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. (Hargrave echo?);___
- Bermuda kite traditional Bermudian kites flown at Easter. Hold World records for altitude and duration.
- Biplane kite
- Bird kites. Abstract and realistic looking bird kites. Dynamic bird kites. Bird art on face of kites. Bird Kites by George Webster. Kiteflier, Issue 92, p. 5-12.
- Boats that operate as kites for a major part of their operations: A 1930 Peel Glider Boat was kited on a 1000' line and would get about 3 miles of air gliding distance after releasing its kite line. Peel Glider Boat The many contemporary inflated boats that are being kited begin and end their kited session as towed boats, for example Sevlor Manta Ray
- Bowed kite
- Bow kite This term has several uses: class of parafoil kites, early British bowing top edge sparred kite, and also the rotating-ribbon rainbow-like two-anchor one-line arch kite.
- Bow kite This is to be distinguished from Sky Bow or rotating ribbon kite and also from the arch bow stick kites.
- Box kite. Box-like kite.
- Box Delta kites
- Butterfly kites This type occurs at several levels: art, applique, and realistic motion.
- Delta kites or Delta-wing kites. Single line deltas. Dual-line stunt delta kites. Deltas with a triangular box is a popular variant. Single Box Delta Plan
- Diamond kites (see Eddy kites, but distinguish) Diamonds types appear from mini to very large, from low-cost beginner utility (El'Cheapo Diamond) to high quality state-of-the art large target control diamonds. MBK 2-Skewer Diamond Kite plan.
- Display kites. (or show kites) A genre of kites for display has been growing (for festivals, shows, library exhibitions, museum exhibitions, event leaders).
- Disposable kite. In kite fishing there are distinct uses for disposable kites. In Philippine kite fighting, the object is to destroy the other's kite body directly; new games of fighting displace the disposable kite.
- Duryea kite reproductions (Charles Duryea)
- Double-kite systems (two coupled kites, but confined; or two coupled kites in free-flight--and hazardous) in same media (air only or water only, e.g.) or distinct media (air and water, e.g.). (kitesurfing with board as a hybrid water kite kite coupled with a power air kite, e.g.); Without Visible Means of Support by Richard Miller, 1965? for two coupled air kites with one in jet stream and the lower kite in non-jet-stream flows). Two (or more) kites kite lined to one anchor or one mooring or one kite operator are included here. Two kites (or more) that communicate with each other for a purpose are coupled.
- Dragon kites. A couple of categories of dragon kites persist; those that mimic the figure of a dragon in decoration or figure kite and those of a series of kites in a train or stack.
- Eddy kite or Diamond kite. ; ; ;
- Electricity-generating kites. There are hydro kites and air kites specifically designed to generate electricity as their dominant purpose. Also, there are kites that have electricity generation as a secondary arrangement.
- Exotic kites do not fit other types.
- Gallaudet kite. Gallaudet Hydrokite. Yale professor was told not to experiment with aeronautics. However his biplane kite with tail involved wing warping prior to the Wright brothers use of such control means. Edson Fessenden Gallaudet (1871 - 1945); detail drawings are available at Gallaudet Hydrokite Edson Gallaudet formed the Gallaudet Engineering company with his brother and then Gallaudet Aircraft Company (GAC), earliest precursor to the company General Dynamics. The Gallaudet Hydrokite was the beginning of a seaplane interest of the GAC.
- Geometric kite.
- Genki kite.
- Giant kite. Cody Specials;__ Introducing the Giant Kites of Guatemala;__ Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival, Shiga, Japan
- Glider kites. Manned and unmanned aircraft intended primarily for gliding are frequently tested and flown as kites under tow from ground or water vehicles or animals, machines, or other people. Some glider kites released to free-flight gliding may or may not be free-flight kites depending on how payload may or may not be tugging the glider's wing through a tow line set or not. Primary manned gliders kited are glider kites when so being kited; when released to glide, these are not kites. Differently, the hang-lined hang glider pilot may be kited up in his or her aircraft, but when released to free-flight, such aircraft remains a gliding kite or kite glider. See the Martin Glider that was kited by very many different means.
- Gyrocopter or helicopter kite (see autogyro)
- Hang glider Usually manned. Many hang gliders are true kites. The hang gliders that are not true kites are not encircled here. Ed Grauel includes hang glider is his typing of kites. A brief presentation of ways of kiting the kite hang glider are presented by North Texas Hang/Para Gliding Association NTHPA
- Hang glider kites that are unmanned: Unmanned kites as mimics of manned hang gliders (kites or not).
- Hargrave kites (Lawrence Hargrave);__ Hargrave Replica at Royal Park
- Helikite. A type of kytoon filled with helium. Heliktie is a true kite yet is also lighter-than air for staying aloft when kiting is insufficient for keeping the helikite aloft. One major use of the Helikite is bird control . Another is antenna lifting. KAP also.
- Hexagonal kite US 51860 patent was for a hexagonal kite by T. Perrins granted on January 2, 1866. A Birt kite may have preempted in fact the same kite. Ed Grauel opines that the Birt kite at the Kew Observatory preempted the Perrins kite; he noted that the same kite later became known as the barndoor or house kite. .
- High aspect ratio kites. Tow-launched hobby unmanned sailplanes are true kites during hi-start kited launches ; they may hold the record for single-line single-anchor high aspect ratio kites made by humans. However, the rotating ribbon single-line double-anchored Skybow kite (rotating ribbon arch kite of two anchors) that sits in the sky nearly as a rainbow is a kite with extreme aspect ratio. A different non-rotating ribbon kite by Anders Ansar follows the Barish sailwing concept to the extreme; Ansar suggests more than two anchor points. He also explains how two sailors holding a ribbon kite, e g on ice wearing ice skates, can sail straight upwind or straight down wind, the latter faster than the wind. A concept for the world's biggest, longest, widest kite?.
- Hydro kite Water kites. Kites that fly in water or on the surface of water.
- India kites.
- Indoor kite Also this confuses with zero-wind kites .
- Inflatable single-line kite Inflatable delta wing kite; ; ; Distinguish between closed-bladder inflated kites (sausage balloon kite, other-form balloon kites) from open-bladder ram-air inflation (Jalbert parafoil and its derivatives) and the single-surface flexible-sail dynamic inflation (Rogallo and Barish wings). A kite can two or three types of inflation parts (Jalbert's 1944 patent claimed a kite that had the closed-cell inflation as well as a sailwing part). Over water flying applications have invited air kites having light-than-water flotation capability; power-kiting for kitesurfing with leading-edge-inflated (LEI) bladder held inside textile pocket is one such use; another are some fishing kites Inflatable Fishing Kite Instructions . Gomberg has shown a great variety of "Unique Inflatable Kites
- Invisible kites (radar invisible, very-low visibility translucents, out-of-sights, non-lighted night kites, imagined kites, kites flown by the blind as they feel the tension changes)
- Jalbert parafoil kites following invention of Domina Jalbert
- Japanese kites
- Java kites (pre-Malay kite, pre-Eddy kite)
- Kid kites. This type of kite is fit for young kids. Both hobby authors and commercial suppliers pay attention to this type of kite. Easy Kites for Kids; Best Kite For Kids; Kid's Kites
- Kirby kite (aka bird kite, but a variant of the Malay kite) (Not to be confused with the manned glider called Kirby Kite which was a kite upon being kite launched into a gliding or soaring session.) (Also, not to be confused with the radio-controlled Airworld Kirby Kite scale glider which has a kite life when being given a kited launch.
- KiteSail by Maurice GRENIER
- KiteShip by Dave Culp.
- Korean kites
- Kytoon--shaped balloon that kites (Two general types: 1.Lighter-than-medium in which it moves within a gravity field. 2. Heavier-than-air kytoon or heavier-than the medium in which it flies. Density is intended when saying heavier-than-the-ambient medium.). For air, some kytoons are less dense than air (using hydrogen, helium, heated air); other kytoons filled with say unheated air are not buoyant in still air, but are kited still. Helikite (tm). Notice that these are not helicopter kites; the heli stands for helium. Include barrage kites of the kytoon type that Domina Jalbert worked for military defense purposes and peace time antenna lifting by ham radio operators; car dealers raise advertisements with kytoons.Observation balloon The kytoon is a true kite when in flight in an appropriate moving stream of material, fluid, gas, or air; the kytoon is also a true balloon.
- * KITE BALLOON BALPH H. UPSON. 1916.(A)
- * Kite Balloon. Upson. 1916.(B)
- * KITE BALLOON HERBERT GRAY GIBBS. 1924
- * Allsopp helikites limited - Manufacturer of aerostats
- * Kite Balloon by H. Upson, 1916 patent
- * KITE BALLOON Domina C. Jalbert (A)
- * KITE BALLOON Jalbert (B)
- * Kite Ballon. Domina C. Jalbert. (C)
- * Balloon kite Robert O. Talamo
- * Aircraft. Aircraft uses kite balloon in concert with a kite train and a powered aircraft.
- * Thermodynamic kite Guy H. Kennedy, Jr.
- Parachute kites (see below paraglider) Parachutes that have a directioning venting small (parasail, directional parachutes) or massive (Jalbert parafoil, Rogallo parawing) are kites moored to free-falling body or payload. Symmetrical non-directionable zero-lift/drag ratio parachutes are streamers and not kites; no net deflection from the stream occurs in a true parachute.
- Parafoil stunt kites.
- Paraglider manned (these are kites both in free-fall as well as when being kited either by the pilot or secondarily by a towing or moored device or even powered harness system).
- Parasail and Parasailing These are parachutes modified to have a positive lift/drag ratio so that the wing can be kited to carry humans or other payload.
- Paravane (weapon)
- Paravane ...water kite
- Pentagonal kites. Penta kites. Five-sided polygonal kite. Penta Kites+ Japanese Kite collection The five points gives ample opportunity for head, two hands and two legs. Distinguish pentagonal kites from the five-point star kites that are ten sided (unless art is simply showing the five-point star). Five recalls the shapes, humans, and animals.
- Picnic plate kites. See Plate kites.
- Plasma kite Notice the Dave Culp, kite expert professional, patent-mentioned plasma kite while distinguish the ambient flying media: blood plasma or space plasma or confined scientific-laboratory or industrially used plasma streams. Plasma is the most common phase of matter in the universe .
- Plate kites: paper or plastic or EPS foam picnic plate kites. This type of kite includes figure, artistic, dragon, and rotary kites. The most simple kite here is the single plate uncut and left as a circular kite, else complexity is up to makers. (p. 4)PAPER PLATE FLYER
- Powered-harness hang glider kites.
- Powered paragliders. Powered paragliding
- Radio-controlled kite, unpowered. Both for sport and commercial purposes, the complexity of more than one line is bringing forward attention on controlling power, position, angle of attack. One line simplifies reeling and line control. One project in the power kite sport field is the "Slarc." Peter Lynn Newsletter August 2007 Radio-control de-powering and release systems are being developed. Instead of the drag of two, three, four, or five lines, the single-line radio-controlled kite has the drag of just one line. United States Application US20080108273 instructs RC kites.
- Radio-controlled kite, powered scale and manned. Distinguish a product that is not a kite called RC Kite from true kites that have radio controls on a kite-lined kite wing.
- Ram-air kite
- Revolution kite or Rev kite (four-line Revolution stunt kites by Joe Hadzicki)
- Ribbon kite. Several sorts: large non-rotating ribbon arch kite, rotating ribbon kite, and kite with main sails made up of grids and meshes of ribbons (latticework kites). German kite designer Willi Koch Kites made by Willi Koch, from Nettetal, Germany specialized in mesh or ribbon-set kites. Premier Mesh Delta - 11 Foot - Rainbow
- Rigid kite (no flexible sail part)
- Rogallo Parawing kite
- Roller kite. The Roller kite
- Rolloplan kite Roloplan (German origin)
- Rotary kites--vertical axis rotary, spanwise rotary (aerodynamic basis), mixed rotary, streamwise axially rotary UFO and Rotor Kite Information; Classic Rotor (Meat Tray); Koool Kites EPS, Styrofoam, and balsa special Magnus-effect rotary kites can be made with several construction methods for two-line control kites for heavier breezes: Interesting circular and rotary kite designs. Modern UFO Rotor Kites Many of the spanwise rotary kites are two-line control kites. However, UFO-SAM is a single-line rotary Magnus-effect kite; one of the leading makers of the kite Kenneth Sams died in 2003 at age 80, but a manufacturer has continued offering the kite. A two-line rotary kite using a special control bar is instructed in the patent by J. R. Carnwath filed in Mar 29, 1948. . Kites that revolve but do not obtain lift from the revolving motion are distinct from Magnus-effect lifters or gyrocopting lifting rotating kites; Thomas Ansboro of Scotland in 1891 instructed in a US patent 464412 about a revolving hexagonal kite where the bridling is critical .
A ringed UFO rotary kite patent indicated a special bridling ring and a central rotating ring. US Patent 4779825. Especially full of information about the type of rotary kite of spanwise top-over-back rotation is the US Patent 5598988 The very high aspect ratio rotating spanwise ribbon kites are continuing to gain interest--Skybow; these require at least two swivels. Also, a species of rotary kites that are nearly streamers rotate nearly windward; some are vaned and some are not vaned. Vaneless rotary kite Carl E. Knight et al. And: US patent:3086738 "Rotating kite", Lubash, John J., 1963,April In 1995 Carl E. Knight and Jo Ann F. Knight well instructed a rotary kite that rotates near windward for its axis (not like autogyro and not like spanwise magnus) Kite
- Rokkaku Often: Rokaku. ;__ ;__ ;__ ;__ __; ;
- Rotating Ribbon Kite: One version has been called Skybow. The long ribbon is at least a two-anchored system with at least two swivels, but may be segmented to allow segments of ribbon to rotate at different speeds. Autorotation giving lift via the Magnus effect allows a rainbow arch kite to fly. A human operator at one end with a fixed ground anchor at the other is one format; a separate human operator at each of two anchors is another format. More than two tethers can be used. Rotating Kites
- Self-erecting collapsible kites. Collapsible kites that self-erect upon some triggering event to full kite form have special niche uses and appeal. Positive inflated kytoons would be typed here if a simple triggering erected the kytoon. Already-erected kites like the parafoil are self-inflating, but not usually considered as needing any erecting, as they are already softly finished in form except for placing them in the wind. Self-erecting collapsible kite Todd Hostetter; and Inflatable kite arrangement and launcher Vernon G. Pascoe et al
- Show kites. See Display kites. Show kites are one category of display kites.
- Skating kites. Kite skating Kite skating
- Sled kites: Scott Sled and Allison Sled or Sled: two kite types that have intertwined histories and a large following with many hybrids stemming from the original leading historical designs. There are many variants of the sled kite. FLEXIBLE KITE William M. Allison; and Flight.(straw and paper sled). Sled Kites by George Webster; 10 pages with plans and variations.; and Flexible Sled Kites; and Hooded Kite; and Swallowtail kite by inventor John W. Loy Make A Sled Kite
- Signature kites. Kites made by a particular person become prized possessions for some people.
- Single-piece kites SINGLE PIECE KITE Frank L. Roe;
- Soft kites (parawing, parafoil, some un-sticked sleds, Barish sailwing, Playsail, KiteShip, foils)
- Solar kite ...plasma media, photonic media: Solar Kite Mission Feasibility Study Solar kite engineers and scientists are expanding the definition of kite. Solar kites: Small solar sails with no moving parts
- Solar kite ...sail is full of solar-energy electricity generating material.
- Solar kite ...images on kite of the sun or tradenamed with solar in its name. Sun kite. (Solar Max Delta Kite,
- Soil kite
- Sound-making kites
- Stunt kite New type of stunting from WindFire Designs
- Square kites
- Stacked kite (stacking sub-kite units). Paul Flying A Record Breaking 50 6ft Pro Speeds
- Kite (Styrofoam-only)
- Toy kites
- Train. Or "kite train". Connect many kite-body units onto one line in various ways and have a kite that is a kite train or train of kites. Dragon kites, centipede kites, and some arches are trains. A train of mini kites is a mini-kite train. Mini Kite Train FANO 1997, Kitetrains
- Trainer kites. Kites of lower power that are used to practice maneuvers before higher powered kites are used.
- Tukkal kite (special four-stick kite) (var: tukal)
- Ventilated kite. Flying kites in high speed winds and even stormy winds is achieved in several ways; one way is to have high porosity or ventilated kites Effective sail area is reduced while shape and appearance can follow known kite shapes of non-ventilated kites. My Kite Bag.
- Victory kite. One series of noted kites: the Victory kites of Stormy Weathers (yes that is his name) include Star Victory, Swift Victory, and Winged Victory. Mr. Weathers was respected for building fine-flying kites from common materials. DF Archive - Weathers Collection
- X-treme kites. Extreme sport kites.
- X flat two-stick kite; the frame is "X" format with two spars; rectangular or square or cut to form X. Flat kites made of two sticks. Artistic alphabet character "X" kite.
- X-kite, a program holding virtual kite hang gliders in software program. X-kite
- X-Kite and X-Gliders, a company; their line of kite offers are X-kites (many styles). Eric Duvauchelle, Art Director, is proud of their new launching in 2008. X-Kites Shop online
- Yacht kites Leslie Hunt's book's 25 kites included a plan for a yacht kite
- Youth kites. Kites for the very young children is a kite type category in the commercial sphere. Also: Beginner kites. Kid kites. Kiddie kites. Kites suitable for the very young children are alsomst always small single-line kites using cotton kite line. Festivals sometimes have a category of called youth kites.
- Zero-wind kites (kite pilot stays within a tight ground circle or pumps the kite line without moving or walks or runs when there is zero-wind conditions.) (Also known as nil-win, null-wind, no-wind, indoor kites). Ninja zero and low-wind kite plan is open for all for non-commercial use . A zero-wind kite: the urban ninja: a synergetic low wind kite project