Unlawful homicide of at least two people, carried out in a series over a period of time. Serial murder differs from mass murder, in which several victims are murdered at the same time and place. Criminologists have distinguished between two types of serial murder: classic serial murder, which usually involves stalking and is often sexually motivated, and spree serial murder, which is usually motivated by thrill-seeking. Cases of serial murder have been documented since ancient times. The incidence of serial murder increased dramatically in the early 19th century, particularly in Europe, though this development has been attributed to advances in crime detection and increased news coverage rather than to an actual rise in the number of occurrences. From the late 19th century serial murderers received considerable attention in the press, and their cases inspired numerous books and films. These accounts, however, tended to mislead the public by suggesting that serial murder is a common phenomenon, when in fact it represented less than 2percnt of all murders in the late 20th century.
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Painless killing of a person who has a painful, incurable disease or incapacitating disorder. Most legal systems consider it murder, though in many jurisdictions a physician may lawfully decide not to prolong the patient's life or may give drugs to relieve pain even if they shorten the patient's life. Associations promoting legal euthanasia exist in many countries. The legalization movement has gained ground with advancing medical technology, which has been used to prolong the lives of patients who are enduring extreme suffering or who are comatose or unable to communicate their wishes. Euthanasia was legalized in The Netherlands in 2001 and in Belgium in 2002. In 1997 Oregon became the first state in the U.S. to decriminalize physician-assisted suicide.
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