Kigali, city (1997 pop. 330,000), central Rwanda, capital of Rwanda. It is the country's main administrative and economic center. The city has an international airport and road access to all of the country's borders. Iron ore (cassiterite) is mined nearby, and the city built a smelting plant in the 1980s. Founded in 1907 under German colonial rule, Kigali was made the capital when Rwanda gained independence in 1962. In 1994 it was the scene of the slaughter of thousands of Tutsis by Hutu gangs and the Rwandan army, and of fierce fighting between the army and Tutsi-dominated rebel forces.

City (pop., 1996 est.: 356,000), capital of Rwanda. Located in the middle of the country, it was a trading centre during the German colonial administration (after 1895) and a regional centre during the Belgian colonial period (1919–62). It became the capital of independent Rwanda in 1962. The fast-growing city was adversely affected by the country's political turmoil in the 1990s.

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