Kholmogory

Kholmogory

Kholmogory, village, NW European Russia, SE of Arkhangelsk and at the mouth of the Northern Dvina River. Known since 1355, Kholmogory was a major trade center for Novgorod merchants in the 15th and 16th cent. and became a shipping and cattle raising center in the 18th cent. Its significance declined with the rise of Arkhangelsk.

Kholmogory (Холмого́ры) is a historic village (selo) and the administrative center of Kholmogorsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It lies on the left bank of the Northern Dvina, along the Kholmogory Highway, 75 km southeast of Arkhangelsk and 90 km north of the Antonievo-Siysky Monastery. The name is derived from the Finnish Kalmomäki for "corpse hill" (cemetery). Population:

The Kolmogor area was at first in historical times inhabited by the Finno-Ugrians "Savolotshij Thsuuds", (sa-volokis) known also as Yems in old Novgorod chronicles and Karelians. The first Slavonic population to enter to Kalmamäki were Pomors (Pomortsians) from Vologda area after 1220. As early as the 14th century, the village (the name of which was then spelled Kolmogory) was an important trading post of the Novgorod Republic in the Far North of Russia. Its commercial importance further increased in 1554 when the Muscovy Company made it a center of its operations in furs. The Swedes besieged the wooden fort during the Time of Troubles (1613), but had to retreat in failure. This later produced Russian claim, during the Soviet era, seems to be unrealistic. There is not a single mention of such operation in Swedish military sources. In the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, the settlement was also a place of exile, notably for ex-regent Anna Leopoldovna and her children.

In 1682, the six-pillared Kholmogory cathedral was consecrated; the biggest in the region. It was destroyed by the Communists in the 1930s. Many ancient wooden shrines and mills, however, still survive in the neighborhood. One of the nearby villages is a birthplace of the great Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. Local artisans — such as Fedot Shubin - have been famed for their craft of carving the tusks of mammoths and walruses. The Lomonosov Bone-Carving Factory preserves the medieval tradition of this folk art.

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