Definitions

Keith

Keith

[keeth]
Haring, Keith, 1958-90, American artist, b. Kutztown, Pa. He moved to New York City in 1975 and studied at the School of Visual Arts (1978-79). Fascinated with the 1970s graffiti artists, Haring soon joined them in the subways, and his chalked drawings on station advertising boards became underground icons—cheerful, boldly outlined, cartoonlike figures surrounded by kinetic lines suggesting movement or, in the case of his trademark "radiant baby," a kind of holy light. During the 1980s his brand of second-generation pop art, with its exuberantly charming images, reached a broad public as fine art in paintings and prints and commercially on T-shirts, watches, and other products, many of which were sold at his New York Pop Shop. He also created murals, stage sets, and sculpture. When Haring discovered (1988) that he had AIDS he turned much of his artistic attention to educational works about the dangers of the disease.

See biography by J. Gruen (1991); study by E. Sussman et al. (1997).

Keith, Sir Arthur, 1866-1955, British anatomist, b. Aberdeen, Scotland, educated at the Univ. of Aberdeen, University College, London, and the Univ. of Leipzig. He became conservator of the museum and professor at the Royal College of Surgeons (1908), then professor of physiology at the Royal Institution, London (1917-23). From 1933 he carried out research on tuberculosis as master of the Buckston Browne Research Farm at Downe, Kent. He also applied his knowledge of anatomy to an influential study of human origins, reconstructing prehistoric man based on fossil remains from Europe and N Africa. His writings include Human Embryology and Morphology (1902, 6th ed. 1949), The Antiquity of Man (1915, 2d ed. 1925), and A New Theory of Human Evolution (1948).

See his autobiography (1950).

Keith, George, c.1638-1716, Scottish preacher. Joining the Quakers c.1663, he was closely associated with Robert Barclay, George Fox, and other influential Friends. Shortly after his arrival in America (1684) he became the leader of a separate faction known as Christian Quakers, for which he was denounced by William Penn in 1692. Keith returned to England where, in 1700, he was ordained a priest in the Anglican Church. He was again in America (1702-4), preaching and baptizing. His journeys in the colonies are recorded in his Journal of Travels from New Hampshire to Caratuck (1706).
Keith, George, 1693?-1778, Scottish Jacobite, 10th earl marischal [marshal] of Scotland. He took part in the Jacobite uprising of 1715 and after its failure escaped to the Continent. A leader of the Spanish expedition to Scotland (1719) in behalf of the Old Pretender, he again escaped. Later he joined his brother James Francis Edward Keith in Prussia and rose high in the favor of Frederick the Great, who appointed him ambassador to Paris (1751), governor of Neuchâtel (1752), and ambassador to Spain (1758). Although pardoned by George II of Britain, he spent most of the remainder of his life in Prussia.
Keith, George Keith Elphinstone, Viscount 1746-1823, British admiral. After serving as a captain in the American Revolution and early French Revolutionary Wars, he was appointed (1795) vice admiral. He suppressed the mutinies at Nore and Spithead (1797) and commanded the Mediterranean fleet (1798-1801), the North Sea fleet (1803-7), and the Channel fleet (1812-15), receiving Napoleon's surrender after Waterloo. Not a military tactician, he won no notable battles but was a skilled administrator and commander.
Keith, James Francis Edward, 1696-1758, Scottish field marshal of Prussia; brother of George Keith, 10th earl marischal [marshal] of Scotland. He participated in the Jacobite uprising of 1715 and in the abortive invasion of 1719 with his brother. Escaping to the Continent, he first entered the Spanish service and then went to Russia, where he gained honor in both civil and military offices. Later he went to Prussia and became close friends with Frederick the Great, who made him a field marshal (1747). Keith entered the circle of Europe's leading intellectuals and rendered great service to Prussia in the early part of the Seven Years War. He was killed in the battle of Hochkirch.
Keith, Minor Cooper, 1848-1929, American magnate, a founder of the United Fruit Company, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. In the face of incredible hardships he built (1871-90) a railroad from the port of Limón, which he founded on the Caribbean, to San José, capital of Costa Rica. Banana plantations that he started experimentally near Limón in 1873 prospered, and he established the first steamship service to bring these bananas to the United States. He gained control of other plantations in Panama and Colombia and dominated the banana trade. In 1899 he combined his plantation interests with those of the Boston Fruit Company in the West Indies to form the United Fruit Company. He returned to railroad building, organized (1912) the International Railways of Central America, and completed an 800-mi (1,287-km) railway system, but died before realizing his dream of a line from Guatemala to the Panama Canal. His work profoundly altered the economic life of Central American countries.

See W. Stewart, Keith and Costa Rica (1964).

Keith, William, 1838-1911, American painter, b. Scotland. In 1851 he came to New York City, where he learned wood engraving and did illustrations for Harper's Weekly. He moved to San Francisco in 1860 and later turned to painting, studying in Düsseldorf in 1870 and in Munich in the 1880s. His Western landscapes evolved from early mountain epics to later intimate natural scenes. The Keith Memorial Gallery of the Oakland Art Museum is devoted entirely to his work. His By the Creek, Sonoma is in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

See Brother Cornelius, Keith, Old Master of California (2 vol., 1942, 1956).

(born March 11, 1931, Melbourne, Vic., Austl.) Australian-U.S. newspaper publisher and media entrepreneur. Son of a famous Australian war correspondent and publisher, he inherited two Adelaide newspapers in 1954 and boosted their circulation by emphasizing crime, sex, scandal, sports, and human interest stories, while taking an outspokenly conservative editorial stance. He used this approach with soaring success with papers bought in Australia, Britain, and the U.S. by his global media holding company, The News Corporation Ltd. He also acquired conventional and respected publications, including The Times of London. In the 1980s and '90s he expanded into book and electronic publishing, television broadcasting, and film and video production. His holdings include the New York Post; Fox, Inc. (see Fox Broadcasting Co.); HarperCollins Publishers; British Sky Broadcasting; Star TV, a pan-Asian television service; and Dow Jones & Co., publisher of The Wall Street Journal.

Learn more about Murdoch, (Keith) Rupert with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 4, 1958, Reading, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 16, 1990, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter and draftsman. He studied at New York City's School of Visual Arts and developed a unique style inspired by graffiti, cartoons, and comic strips, which he displayed in works drawn clandestinely at night on subway station walls around the city. He also created paintings, drawings, and prints in a graffiti style, filling the works from edge to edge using signs, abstract symbols, and human and animal figures writhing in a spaceless, airless design. In the 1980s he executed murals in New York and exhibited internationally, achieving great commercial success.

Learn more about Haring, Keith with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 4, 1958, Reading, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 16, 1990, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter and draftsman. He studied at New York City's School of Visual Arts and developed a unique style inspired by graffiti, cartoons, and comic strips, which he displayed in works drawn clandestinely at night on subway station walls around the city. He also created paintings, drawings, and prints in a graffiti style, filling the works from edge to edge using signs, abstract symbols, and human and animal figures writhing in a spaceless, airless design. In the 1980s he executed murals in New York and exhibited internationally, achieving great commercial success.

Learn more about Haring, Keith with a free trial on Britannica.com.

G.K. Chesterton, chalk drawing by James Gunn, 1932; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born May 29, 1874, London, Eng.—died June 14, 1936, Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire) British man of letters. Chesterton was a journalist, a scholar, a novelist and short-story writer, and a poet. His works of social and literary criticism include Robert Browning (1903), Charles Dickens (1906), and The Victorian Age in Literature (1913). Even before his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1922, he was interested in theology and religious argument. His fiction includes The Napoleon of Notting Hill (1904), the popular allegorical novel The Man Who Was Thursday (1908), and his most successful creation, the series of detective novels featuring the priest-sleuth Father Brown.

Learn more about Chesterton, G(ilbert) K(eith) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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See also

  • Keith number, integer that appears as a term in a linear recurrence relation with initial terms based on its own digits
  • Dalkeith, Midlothian, a town in Scotland

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