Kamyshin was founded in 1667 on the left bank of the Kamyshinka River. In 1710, all of its inhabitants were relocated to the fortress on the opposite bank of the river. This settlement was named Dmitriyevsky. In 1780, they changed the name to Kamyshin. In the 19th century, Kamyshin turned into a merchant city with sawmills and windmills. It was formerly famous for its watermelon trade. Alexei Petrovich Maresiev, a Russian flying ace, was born in Kamyshin.
FC Tekstilshchik Kamyshin now plays in Russian Second Division, however in 1992-1996 the club played in the top tier of Russian football, achieving 4th place in 1993. This was followed by the campaign in UEFA Cup where Tekstilshchik reached the second round.