Green, Julian or Julien, 1900-1998, French writer, b. Paris, of American parentage. Except for the years from 1918 to 1922 and from 1940 to 1945, Green lived in France. His 18 novels, written in French, are somber psychological tales concerning vice and near-madness. Among the best known are The Closed Garden (1927, tr. 1928), The Dark Journey (1929, tr. 1929), Midnight (1936, tr. 1936), Moira (1950, tr. 1951), and L'Autre (1971, tr. 1973). Green's epic historical novel of the American South, The Distant Lands (1987; tr. 1991), was a French bestseller. His plays include Sud (1953), L'Ennemi (1954), and L'Ombre (1956). He was elected to the Académie Française in 1971.

See his autobiography (4 vol.; pub. in full 1984); Diary (1964), a partial translation of the journal that he began keeping in the 1920s; studies by G. S. Burne (1971) and S. Stokes, Jr. (1955, repr. 1972).

Schnabel, Julian, 1951-, American artist, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. He studied art at the Univ. of Houston and the Whitney Museum. A neoexpressionist, he became a superstar of the 1980s art world after his first one-man show in New York (1979). Schnabel is particularly noted for large paintings that incorporate broken crockery, e.g., The Walk Home (1985), and for other kinds of work that flout high-art conventions, such as paintings on velvet or linoleum. Later paintings include large portraits of women with lines painted across their eyes and abstract works derived from antique French x-rays. He has also executed a number of sculptures and is well known for his pronouncements on art. In the 1990s he branched out into writing and singing and also became a successful filmmaker, directing Basquiat (1996) and Before Night Falls (2000). Schnabel's reputation as a director was enhanced by his highly acclaimed The Diving Bell and the Butterfly (2007), which like his other films is a biography and addresses issues of art and suffering.

See his memoir, C.V.J.: Nicknames of Maitre D's and Other Excerpts from Life (1987), and his survey of his life and work, Julian Schnabel (2003).

Tuwim, Julian, 1894-1953, Polish poet. A leader of the Skamander group of experimental poets, he was also a major figure in his nation's literature. In his principal collection of poetry, Slowa we krwi [words bathed in blood] (1926), he wrote with fervor and violence of the emptiness of urban existence. Tuwim's other works include the collection of poems for children Locomotive (1938, tr. 1940) and brilliant translations of Pushkin and other Russian poets.

See his selected poems, ed. by A. Gillon (tr. 1968).

Beck, Julian, 1925-85, American theatrical director, actor, and producer, b. New York City. He married Judith Malina, 1926-, also an American theatrical director, actor, and producer, b. Germany. Together they founded the Living Theater in 1947, which inaugurated the off-off Broadway movement. Their productions were highly imaginative and often involved collective improvisation and took an anarcho-pacifist viewpoint. Perhaps their most controversial work was Paradise Now (1968), a free-form critique of American life that involved nudity and audience participation. Their other productions include The Connection (1959), The Brig (1963), In the Jungle of the Cities (1960), and Antigone (1968). The company was based in Europe for two decades (1963-83). After Beck's death, the theater continued under the direction of Malina and Hanon Reznikov.

See J. Malina's autobiography, The Enormous Despair (1972); R. Neff, The Living Theatre: USA (1970); J. Tytell, The Living Theater: Art, Exile, and Outrage (1995).

Bond, Julian (Horace Julian Bond), 1940-, U.S. civil-rights leader, b. Nashville, Tenn. As a student at Morehouse College, he participated in sit-ins at segregated Atlanta restaurants. He was a founder (1960) of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, serving (1961-65) as its communications director. Elected (1965) to the Georgia assembly, Bond was denied his seat because of his statements opposing the war in Vietnam. Reelected in 1966, he began serving after the U.S. Supreme Court upheld (Dec., 1966) his right to hold office. A state representative until 1974, he then served as a state senator (1975-87). Bond led a group of black delegates to the 1968 Democratic Convention where he challenged the party's unit rule and won representation at the expense of the regular Georgia delegation. In 1986 he lost a Georgia congressional race to John Lewis. In 1998 he became chairman of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. He is the author of A Time to Speak, a Time to Act (1972).

See biographies by J. Neary (1971) and R. M. Williams (1971).

Julian, George Washington, 1817-99, American abolitionist, U.S. Representative from Indiana (1849-51, 1861-71), b. Wayne co., Ind. Elected to the Indiana legislature as a Whig in 1845, he later became prominent in the Free-Soil party and in 1849 was sent to Congress by a coalition of Free-Soilers and Democrats. There he continued his radical antislavery activities. In 1852 the Free-Soil party nominated him for Vice President on the ticket with John P. Hale. He joined the Republican party at the time of its formation and in 1861 returned to Congress, where he became chairman of the committee on public lands and a member of the committees on the conduct of the war, on Reconstruction, and on the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson. In 1872 he joined the Liberal Republican party and after its demise was associated with the Democratic party. From 1885 to 1889 he was surveyor general of New Mexico by appointment of President Cleveland.

See published collections of his speeches; biography by P. W. Riddleberger (1966).

Julian, Percy Lavon, 1899-1975, African-American chemist, inventor, and businessman, b. Montgomery, Ala., grad. DePauw Univ. (A.B., 1920), Harvard (M.A., 1923), and the Univ. of Vienna (Ph.D., 1931). Faced with racial prejudice in his personal, academic, and professional life, Julian taught at Howard Univ. and DePauw, where he synthesized physostigmine, an alkaloid used to treat glaucoma, from the calabar bean. Despite this significant accomplishment, DePauw refused to give him a permanent faculty position, and he became (1936) a chief chemist at Chicago's Glidden Co. There he did significant work on the soybean; his achievements included the invention of a fire-retardant foam and the synthesis of cortisone, male and female sex hormones, and other substances. In 1953 he established his own company, Julian Laboratories, where he made important innovations in the production of synthetic steroids. After he sold the company in 1961, he established (1964) the Julian Research Institute. Julian, who held more than 100 patents, was also active in the civil-rights movement.
Bream, Julian (Julian Alexander Bream), 1933-, English guitarist and lutenist. Bream was first taught guitar by his father and studied piano and cello at the Royal College of Music. He made his debut at the age of 12. During the 1950s and 60s he led the the Julian Bream Consort, a pioneering period-instrument ensemble. An outstanding performer, Bream had a repertory ranging from Dowland to Henze, and many compositions were written expressly for him, e.g., Benjamin Britten's Nocturnal (1963). He retired in 2002.

See P. Balmer, dir., Julian Bream: My Life in Music (documentary film, 2003).

Julian is an unincorporated community in San Diego County, California, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the census-designated place population was 1,621.

Julian is an official California Historical Landmark No. 412. Also, the Julian townsite and surrounding area is defined by the San Diego County Zoning Ordinance Section 5749 as the Julian Historic District. This designation requires that development adhere to certain guidelines that are administered by the Architectural Review Board of the Julian Historic District, which is appointed by the San Diego County Board of Supervisors. (The "Design Guidelines Manual" is available in portable document format at San Diego County's office web site )


The area was originally occupied by the Kumeyaay people.

After the American Civil War, Julian experienced a gold rush. This short-lived gold rush was sparked by the discovery of gold in 1869 by a former slave named A.E. "Fred" Coleman.

According to a bronze historical plaque appearing in the town, in the early days of Julian, the majority of San Diego County's African-American population resided in or near the town, including the founders of the Robinson Hotel as well as a noted resident, America Newton. Of the 55 blacks living in San Diego County during the 1880 census, 33 lived in the Julian area. Although this information appears on the plaque, it has been the subject of some controversy.

In recent decades Julian has become a quaint mountain resort. The town narrowly escaped destruction in the 2003 Cedar Fire that burned much of the surrounding area.


Julian is located in a mixed pine-oak woodland at (33.070930, -116.585601), 4,235 feet (1,219 m) above sea level. Precipitation averages 26 inches (66 cm) per year, notably higher than rainfall totals in coastal and desert areas of San Diego County, due to the orographic effect.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 20.5 km² (7.9 mi²), all land.

Soils in and around Julian are mostly dark brown, slightly to moderately acidic sandy loams which are well drained and of variable stoniness. Less stony areas, which underlie most of the townsite, are in the Holland series. The hills around town have rocky soils of the Crouch series. Somewhat poorly drained alluvial loam occurs along Coleman Creek.


As of the census of 2000, there were 1,621 people, 658 households, and 459 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 79.0/km² (204.8/mi²). There were 902 housing units at an average density of 44.0/km² (114.0/mi²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.05% White, 0.74% African American, 1.17% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 3.95% from other races, and 2.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.08% of the population.

There were 658 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.2% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 32.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $44,681, and the median income for a family was $49,143. Males had a median income of $32,105 versus $26,509 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $18,132. About 4.3% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.9% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.

Attractions and features

Although Julian's picturesque setting attracts tourists, recreationalists and antique lovers, the town is most famous for its apple crop. The apple variety grown locally is considered less sweet than most traditional types, but pies and cider made from the fruit have garnered great popularity for nearly 100 years. The town is often very busy on holiday weekends and during the apple harvest season (approximately the month of October).

Local shops feature handtooled jewelry, Western artwork, souvenirs, and apple-related foods and candy. In homage to Julian's minor "gold rush," an inactive gold mine is open daily for tours, and recreational gold panning continues today in Banner Creek east of town. Three AAA approved places of lodging are available (including the historic Julian Hotel) several bed and breakfast type establishments, and many private cabins.

Winter days in Julian usually are sunny and cool; however, the area experiences several light snowfalls most years, allowing for snowplay and surfing within the same county only an hour apart. In March 2006, a snowfall that that exceeded two feet surprised the residents and blocked private roads, unmaintained by the County, for more than a week.

A number of wineries located in and around Julian offer complimentary wine tasting. These wineries are: Orfila Vineyards, Witch Creek Winery, J. Jenkins Winery, Menghini Winery, and Shadow Mountain Vineyards. Many of these are located along SR 78/SR 79 to the northwest of the town center.

Access to Julian is limited to three major roads. The northern access is via State Route 76/State Route 79, which ultimately links to various other roads and highways serving northern San Diego and southwestern Riverside counties, including at least three different access routes to Interstate 15. The eastern access is State Route 78, which descends the eastern slope of the mountains to intersect with State Route 86 in Imperial County; this is the least commonly used of the three routes. The southern access is State Route 79 through Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, which provides a link to Interstate 8.


In the state legislature Julian is located in the 36th Senate District, represented by Republican Dennis Hollingsworth, and in the 66th Assembly District, represented by Republican Kevin Jeffries. Federally, Julian is located in California's 49th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +10 and is represented by Republican Darrell Issa.


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