Definitions

Jules

Jules

[joolz; Fr. zhyl]
Bordet, Jules, 1870-1961, Belgian serologist and immunologist, M.D. Univ. of Brussels, 1892. He became director of the Pasteur Institute in Brussels in 1901 and professor at the Univ. of Brussels in 1907. With Octave Gengou he devised (1900) the technique of the complement-fixation reaction (applied by Wassermann to the diagnosis of syphilis) and discovered (1906) the bacillus of whooping cough. For his work in immunity he received the 1919 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2006, American painter, b. Russia as Jevel Demikovsky. While considered a color-field painter (see color-field painting), Olitski produced works that are freer and less severe than many of those associated with the movement. At first he stained his canvases and later used a spray gun to cover large canvases with several layers of varied pastel colors, creating a soft, atmospheric effect. Olitski also made painted metal sculptures. His last works were mainly monotype prints and landscape paintings.

See study by K. Moffett (1973).

Supervielle, Jules, 1884-1960, French author, b. Uruguay. His life was divided between Montevideo, where he was born, and Paris, where he was educated. The freshness and originality of his works are often attributed to his South American background. His stories treat grand subjects with everyday simplicity, making much use of fantasy, allegory, and myth. Among his works are the novels L'Homme de la pampa (1923) and Le Survivant (1928); volumes of short stories including L'Enfant de la haute mer (1931) and Le Petit Bos (1942); plays such as Bolivar (1936); and volumes of poetry including Poèmes de la France malheureuse (1941).

See his Selected Writings (tr. 1967).

Husson or Fleury, Jules, 1821-89, French novelist who wrote under the name Champfleury. Considered a pioneer of French realism, Champfleury was an avid collector of French art and artifacts and conducted extensive research into French history. His literary views are set forth in Réalisme (1857). Among his novels are Les Bourgeois de Molinchart (1854), a portrait of provincial life; and Les Souffrances du Professeur Delteil (1856), a comedy about student pranks. His other works include Histoire de la cariacature (1865-69). In later life he was director of the porcelain factory at Sèvres.
Grévy, Jules, 1807-91, French statesman, president of France (1879-87). As a republican deputy after the February Revolution (1848), he sought to eliminate the danger of a single strong executive. He opposed the Second Empire of Napoleon III. Grévy, a provincial lawyer, abstained from politics from 1851 until he became a deputy in 1868. President of the national assembly (1871-73) and of the chamber of deputies (1876-77), he was chosen to succeed Marshal MacMahon as president of France. His moderate republicanism secured his reelection, but in 1887 he was forced to resign because of a scandal over his son-in-law's traffic in decorations of honor. Sadi Carnot succeeded him.
Sandeau, Jules, 1811-83, French novelist. His best-known work is the romance Mademoiselle de la Seiglière (1848), dramatized in 1851. He collaborated several times with authors better known than he; with the baronne Dudévant, who took her pen name George Sand from Sandeau's name, he wrote Rose et Blanche; ou, La Comédienne et la religieuse (1831).
Guérin, Jules, 1866-1946, American mural painter and illustrator, b. St. Louis. His illustrations appeared in leading magazines. He executed decorations for the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C.; the Pennsylvania RR station, New York City; the Federal Reserve Bank, San Francisco; the Civic Opera, the Merchandise Mart, and the Illinois Merchants' Bank, Chicago; the Cleveland Terminal, Cleveland; and the Louisiana state capitol, Baton Rouge.
Guesde, Jules, 1845-1922, French socialist, whose original name was Basile. Exiled for his support of the Paris commune, he became a confirmed Marxist after 1876 and, with Paul Lafargue, led in advocating socialism in France and a policy of noncompromise with the existing government. Guesde was largely responsible for the formation (1905) of the unified Parti socialiste, which marked the triumph of Marxism over variant forms of French organized socialism. He was a deputy (1893-1921) and served in the cabinet during World War I, when his patriotism overcame his former uncompromising stand. He wrote many socialist pamphlets and articles.
Laforgue, Jules, 1860-87, French symbolist poet. He was one of the first French poets to write in free verse. The revolutionary form of Les Complaintes (1885) and Derniers Vers (1890) influenced later French poets as well as such foreign poets as T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound.
Hardouin, Jules: see Mansart, Jules Hardouin.
Pascin, Jules, 1885-1930, American painter, b. Bulgaria. Born Julius Pincas, he moved to Paris in 1905. He acquired American citizenship in 1914. Essentially a draftsman, belonging to no one school, he portrayed, with flickering line and opalescent tone, the heavy sensuality of his female models. Young Woman in Red (1924; Musée d'Art Moderne, Paris) is characteristic. Pascin was a colorful and generous character in bohemian Parisian society. Two years after he returned to Paris he committed suicide.

See his sketchbook, ed. by J. P. Leeper (1964); biography by A. Werner (1962); study by G. Diehl (1968).

Simon, Jules, 1814-96, French statesman. His full name was Jules François Simon Suisse. He taught philosophy at the Sorbonne from 1839 to 1852, during which time he edited the works of several philosophers and wrote his Histoire de l'école d'Alexandrie (2 vol., 1844-45). He was elected (1848) to the national assembly and later entered the council of state. His republican opinions led to his retirement, and his subsequent refusal to swear allegiance to Louis Napoleon lost him his professorship (1852). Until 1863, Simon devoted himself to intellectual pursuits, writing Natural Religion (1856, tr. 1857), La Liberté (1859), and other works. Resuming political activity, he served as deputy (1863-75) and then was made senator for life. A member of the government of national defense after the French defeat at Sedan, he served (1870-73) as minister of education and proposed many educational reforms that helped to liberalize the secondary school system. Because of Simon's moderate republicanism President MacMahon chose him as premier (1876-77) in preference to Léon Gambetta. As premier, Simon was involved in a governmental crisis in May, 1877; his refusal to accede to the president's demand for his resignation established the principle of parliamentary primacy and the responsibility of the premier to the legislature.
Favre, Jules, 1809-80, French statesman. At first a partisan of the July Monarchy, he joined the republican opposition to King Louis Philippe. After the February Revolution of 1848 he was one of the leaders of the provisional government. Under Emperor Napoleon III he was a leader of the constitutional opposition. In 1858 he courageously defended Felice Orsini. At the end of the Franco-Prussian War, Favre served briefly as foreign minister of the provisional government (1871); he negotiated the final peace with Germany, but was forced to withdraw from the government because of the rigorous conditions imposed by Germany on France.
Feiffer, Jules, 1929-, American cartoonist and writer, b. New York City. He began publishing a cartoon strip in the Village Voice in 1956, maintaining his association with the paper until 1997; his strip continued until 2000 in several Sunday papers. Satirizing a world dominated by the atomic bomb and psychoanalysis, the comic strips were especially concerned with the breakdown of communication between government and citizen, black and white, and man and woman. Among his cartoon collections are Sick, Sick, Sick (1958), Feiffer's Album (1963), Jules Feiffer's America (1982), and Feiffer's Children (1986). He received an Academy Award for the animated cartoon Munro in 1961 and the Pulitzer Prize for editorial cartooning in 1986. Feiffer's best-known play is the black comedy Little Murders (1967); others include The Explainers (1961), a musical; Grown Ups (1981); and A Bad Friend (2003). He has also written two novels, Harry: The Rat with Women (1963) and Ackroyd (1977); screenplays, including those for Carnal Knowledge (1971) and Popeye (1980); and a number of children's books, including The Man in the Ceiling (1993), I Lost My Bear (1998), I'm Not Bobby! (2001), and A Room with a Zoo (2005).
Verne, Jules, 1828-1905, French novelist, originator of modern science fiction. After completing his studies at the Nantes lycée, he went to Paris to study law. He early became interested in the theater and wrote (1848-50) librettos for operettas. For some years his concerns alternated between business and the theater, but after 1863 he drew upon his interest in science and geography to write a series of romances of extraordinary journeys, in which he anticipated, with remarkable foresight, many scientific and technological achievements of the 20th cent.

Verne is especially known to English readers in translations of his Five Weeks in a Balloon (1863), A Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), From the Earth to the Moon (1865), Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea (1870), Around the World in Eighty Days (1873), The Mysterious Island (1875), and Michael Strogoff (1876). Extremely popular, he wrote more than 50 books by the time he died. Plays and motion pictures have been made from many of his works, which are still widely read, particularly by the young. In 1989 the manuscript of Verne's long-lost 1863 novel Paris in the 20th Century was discovered; the pessimistic and prophetic futurist work was published in 1994.

See A. B. Evans, Jules Verne Rediscovered (1988).

Renard, Jules, 1864-1910, French writer. His Écornifleur (1892) is a novel about a young writer's selfish exploitation of a bourgeois family. Poil de carotte (1894), an autobiographical novel about an unhappy child, reflects Renard's bitter memories. Both novels were dramatized by the author, the first as Monsieur Vernet (1903), the second with the original title (1900). Other plays include Le Plaisir de rompre (1897) and Le Pain de ménage (1898), one-act comedies. Le Vigneron dans sa vigne (1894) and Les Bucoliques (1898) are collections of essays and short descriptive tales. Renard's Journal (1925-27) gives a view of the literary figures of his day and shows his preoccupation with style and language.
Michelet, Jules, 1798-1874, French writer, the greatest historian of the romantic school. Born in Paris of poor parents, he visualized himself throughout his life as a champion of the people. He headed the historical section of the national archives and was professor of history at the Collège de France, but he lost his positions when he refused (1851) the oath of allegiance to Louis Napoleon (later Napoleon III). His major work is his Histoire de France (many volumes, 1833-67; several partial translations into English); its style, its emotional strength, and its powerful evocation make it a masterpiece of French literature. Michelet traced the biography of the nation as a whole, instead of concentrating on persons or groups of persons. His most convincing pages deal with the Middle Ages. Michelet had vast knowledge of factual detail and original documents, but his history, especially the latter part, is marred by emotional bias against the clergy, the nobility, and the monarchic institutions. Many of Michelet's other political and historical works are outgrowths of his history of France; especially notable are Le Peuple (1846) and the biography of Joan of Arc (1853). He also wrote romantic impressions of nature and life.
Ferry, Jules, 1832-93, French statesman. A member of the government of national defense established after the defeat of Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), he later rose to prominence as minister of public instruction (1879-80, 1882). He was twice premier (1880-81, 1883-85). Ferry established the modern French educational system with universal, free, and compulsory education in the primary schools. He secularized the public schools, abolishing religious education in them and barring members of Roman Catholic orders as public-school teachers. Ferry is best known, however, as the builder of the French colonial empire. An exponent of imperialism, he was willing to cooperate with the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck in order to secure French expansion overseas. During his premiership the French occupied Tunis, entered Tonkin and Madagascar, and penetrated the regions of the Niger and the Congo. Ferry was overthrown after a temporary French defeat in Indochina. He was assassinated by a religious fanatic.

See study by T. F. Power (1944, repr. 1966).

Chéret, Jules, 1836-1932, French painter and draftsman, originator of the modern poster. His colorful, sophisticated designs for the theater and opera influenced Toulouse-Lautrec. Chéret introduced color lithography into France in 1866.
Massenet, Jules, 1842-1912, French composer. He studied at the Paris Conservatory, where he taught from 1878 to 1896. In addition to many songs, several oratorios, and a number of orchestral suites, he composed more than 20 operas. His most famous work is Manon (1884), which exemplifies his sensuous style and contains accompanied spoken dialogue instead of traditional recitative. His other operas are Werther (1892), Thaïs (1894), and Le Jongleur de Notre Dame (1902).

See his memoirs (tr. 1919, repr. 1970); study by J. Harding (1970).

Mazarin, Jules, 1602-61, French statesman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, b. Italy. His original name was Giulio Mazarini. After serving in the papal army and diplomatic service and as nuncio at the French court (1634-36), he entered the service of France and made himself valuable to King Louis XIII's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, who brought him into the council of state. Although he had received only minor orders and had never been ordained a priest, he was raised to cardinal upon the recommendation of Louis XIII (1641). After the deaths of Richelieu (1642) and Louis XIII (1643), Mazarin was the principal minister of the regent Anne of Austria. The theory that Mazarin was secretly married to the widowed queen has been widely credited. He won favorable terms for France in the Peace of Westphalia (1648), but his attempts to raise money through taxation and his centralizing policy provoked the troubles of the Fronde (1648-53), during which he was several times forced to leave France. After the defeat of the Fronde, Mazarin was securely in control of France. By clever diplomacy he strengthened the crown and negotiated the favorable Peace of the Pyrenees at the end of the war with Spain (1659).

See J. B. Perkins, France under Mazarin (1886); A. Hassall, Mazarin (1903, repr. 1970); W. F. Church, The Impact of Absolutism in France (1969).

Dupré, Jules, 1811?-1889, French landscape painter of the Barbizon school. He excelled in portraying dramatic and tragic aspects of nature. A frequent and honored exhibitor at the Salon, Dupré spent his last years at L'Isle-Adam, where some of his best work was done. His On the Road is in the Art Institute of Chicago.
Romains, Jules, 1885-1972, French writer, whose original name was Louis Farigoule. A brilliant student of philosophy, he became known as the chief exponent of unanimism, a literary theory positing the collective spirit or personality, e.g., the spirit of a city. This concept pervades an early collection of his poems, La Vie unanime (1908). Romains's principal work is the novel cycle Men of Good Will (27 vol., 1932-46; tr. 14 vol., 1933-46), which gives an intricate and panoramic view of French life from 1908 to 1933. Among his other novels are Mort de quelqu'un (1911; tr. The Death of a Nobody, 1914) and Les Copains (1913; tr. The Boys in the Back Room, 1937). His plays, considered masterpieces of French theater, include Cromedeyre-le-Vieil (1920), in which an isolated village returns to primitive ways, and the satirical farce Knock; ou, Le Triomphe de la médecine (1923; tr. Doctor Knock, 1925).

See study by D. Boak (1974).

Perrot, Jules, 1810-92, French dancer and choreographer, b. Lyons. Perrot studied with Auguste Vestris and Salvatore Vigano. He gained fame as a dancer before turning to choreography. From 1848 to 1859 he worked at the Imperial Theatre in St. Petersburg. His ballets included Esmeralda, Ondine, Le Corsaire, and part of the original Giselle (1841).

(born Feb. 8, 1828, Nantes, France—died March 24, 1905, Amiens) French writer. He studied law then worked as a stockbroker while writing plays and stories. The first of his romantic adventures (voyages extraordinaires), Five Weeks in a Balloon (1863), was highly successful. His subsequent voyages—with increasingly fantastic yet carefully conceived scientific wonders that often anticipated 20th-century technological achievements—include A Journey to the Centre of the Earth (1864), Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873). Verne's work shaped the entire development of science fiction.

Learn more about Verne, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 29, 1910, London, Eng.—died June 27, 1989, London) British philosopher. He taught at University College London (1946–59) and later at Oxford (1959–78). He gained international notice in 1936 with the publication of his first book, Language, Truth and Logic, a manifesto of logical positivism that drew on the ideas of the Vienna Circle and the tradition of British empiricism as represented by David Hume and Bertrand Russell. He is also remembered for his contributions to epistemology and his writings on the history of Anglo-American philosophy (seealso analytic philosophy). His other works include The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge (1940), The Problem of Knowledge (1956), The Origins of Pragmatism (1968), Russell and Moore (1971), The Central Questions of Philosophy (1973), and Wittgenstein (1985).

Learn more about Ayer, Sir A(lfred) J(ules) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Louis-Henri-Jean Farigoule

(born Aug. 26, 1885, Saint-Julien-Chapteuil, France—died Aug. 14, 1972, Paris) French novelist, dramatist, and poet. A teacher of philosophy, Romains first became known as a poet and as founder (circa 1908–11), with Georges Chennevière, of the literary movement Unanimisme, which combined belief in universal brotherhood with the psychological concept of group consciousness. His most popular work was the comedy Knock (1923), a satire on doctors. His masterpiece, Men of Good Will, 27 vol. (1932–46), is a vast novel cycle attempting to recreate the spirit of French society from 1908 to 1933 and exemplifying the Unanimiste interest in collective life.

Learn more about Romains, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Jules Perrot, engraving after a drawing.

(born Aug. 18, 1810, Lyon, Fr.—died Aug. 24, 1892, Paramé) French dancer and choreographer. After studying with Auguste Vestris, he debuted at the Paris Opéra in 1830. He often partnered Marie Taglioni until 1835, when he left the company to tour in Europe. He choreographed several ballets for Carlotta Grisi, probably including the famous solos in Giselle. As dancer and ballet master in London (1842–48) and St. Petersburg (1848–58), he choreographed many important Romantic ballets with an expressive, dramatic style. In his later years he gave classes at the Paris Opéra.

Learn more about Perrot, Jules (-Joseph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Julius Pincas

(born , March 31, 1885, Vidin, Bulg.—died June 1, 1930, Paris, France) Bulgarian painter. He traveled widely and lived in Austria and Germany, producing drawings for satirical journals, before moving to Paris in 1905. He moved to New York City during World War I and became a U.S. citizen but returned to Paris in 1920 and became associated with other Jewish artists, including Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani, and Chaim Soutine. His most notable works are thinly painted, delicately toned, ironic studies of women; he also painted portraits and a series of large-scale biblical and mythological scenes. Though financially successful, he was emotionally unstable; he hanged himself at 45.

Learn more about Pascin, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Jules Michelet, detail of an oil painting by Thomas Couture; in the Carnavalet Museum, Paris.

(born Aug. 21, 1798, Paris, France—died Feb. 9, 1874, Hèyres) French nationalist historian. He taught history and philosophy before he was appointed head of the historical section of the Record Office in 1831. His time there provided him with unique resources for his life's work, the 17-volume Histoire de France (1833–67). His method, an attempt to resurrect the past by immersing his own personality in his narrative, resulted in a historical synthesis of great dramatic power, though the 11 volumes that appeared from 1855 to 1867 are distorted by his hatred of priests and kings, hasty or abusive treatment of documents, and mania for symbolic interpretation. His other works include the vivid and impassioned Histoire de la révolution française, 7 vol. (1847–53). In his later years he wrote a series of lyrical books on nature, displaying his superb prose style.

Learn more about Michelet, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 8, 1828, Nantes, France—died March 24, 1905, Amiens) French writer. He studied law then worked as a stockbroker while writing plays and stories. The first of his romantic adventures (voyages extraordinaires), Five Weeks in a Balloon (1863), was highly successful. His subsequent voyages—with increasingly fantastic yet carefully conceived scientific wonders that often anticipated 20th-century technological achievements—include A Journey to the Centre of the Earth (1864), Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873). Verne's work shaped the entire development of science fiction.

Learn more about Verne, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Louis-Henri-Jean Farigoule

(born Aug. 26, 1885, Saint-Julien-Chapteuil, France—died Aug. 14, 1972, Paris) French novelist, dramatist, and poet. A teacher of philosophy, Romains first became known as a poet and as founder (circa 1908–11), with Georges Chennevière, of the literary movement Unanimisme, which combined belief in universal brotherhood with the psychological concept of group consciousness. His most popular work was the comedy Knock (1923), a satire on doctors. His masterpiece, Men of Good Will, 27 vol. (1932–46), is a vast novel cycle attempting to recreate the spirit of French society from 1908 to 1933 and exemplifying the Unanimiste interest in collective life.

Learn more about Romains, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Julius Pincas

(born , March 31, 1885, Vidin, Bulg.—died June 1, 1930, Paris, France) Bulgarian painter. He traveled widely and lived in Austria and Germany, producing drawings for satirical journals, before moving to Paris in 1905. He moved to New York City during World War I and became a U.S. citizen but returned to Paris in 1920 and became associated with other Jewish artists, including Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani, and Chaim Soutine. His most notable works are thinly painted, delicately toned, ironic studies of women; he also painted portraits and a series of large-scale biblical and mythological scenes. Though financially successful, he was emotionally unstable; he hanged himself at 45.

Learn more about Pascin, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Jules Michelet, detail of an oil painting by Thomas Couture; in the Carnavalet Museum, Paris.

(born Aug. 21, 1798, Paris, France—died Feb. 9, 1874, Hèyres) French nationalist historian. He taught history and philosophy before he was appointed head of the historical section of the Record Office in 1831. His time there provided him with unique resources for his life's work, the 17-volume Histoire de France (1833–67). His method, an attempt to resurrect the past by immersing his own personality in his narrative, resulted in a historical synthesis of great dramatic power, though the 11 volumes that appeared from 1855 to 1867 are distorted by his hatred of priests and kings, hasty or abusive treatment of documents, and mania for symbolic interpretation. His other works include the vivid and impassioned Histoire de la révolution française, 7 vol. (1847–53). In his later years he wrote a series of lyrical books on nature, displaying his superb prose style.

Learn more about Michelet, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mathieu Basile

Guesde, 1906

(born Nov. 12, 1845, Paris, France—died July 28, 1922, Saint-Mandé) French labour organizer. He consulted with Karl Marx in 1880 on a socialist program, adopted by a French labour congress, that called on workers to elect representatives who would “conduct the class struggle in the halls of parliament.” He was opposed by “possibilists,” who advocated collective bargaining and support for progressive candidates regardless of party affiliation. He founded the socialist weekly L'Égalité, served in the Chamber of Deputies from 1893, and was minister without portfolio (1914–15).

Learn more about Guesde, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 26, 1929, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. cartoonist and dramatist. Feiffer learned his trade while assisting comic-strip artists. He became famous for Feiffer, a satirical strip whose verbal elements are usually monologues in which the speaker (sometimes pathetic, sometimes pompous) exposes his or her own insecurities. His drawings, syndicated from 1959, are collected in books beginning with Sick, Sick, Sick (1958). In 1986 he received a Pulitzer Prize. His plays, including Little Murders (1967; film, 1971), also blend farce and social criticism. His other works include novels, screenplays (including Carnal Knowledge, 1971), and, in the 1990s, children's books.

Learn more about Feiffer, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 13, 1870, Soignies, Belg.—died April 6, 1961, Brussels) Belgian bacteriologist and immunologist. In 1895 he found that two blood serum components cause bacteriolysis (bacterial cell-wall rupture), one a heat-stable antibody in animals immune to the bacterium and the other a heat-sensitive complement in all animals. In 1898 he discovered hemolysis (rupture of foreign erythrocytes), a similar process that also requires complement. This research was vital to the foundation of serology, the study of immune reactions in body fluids. His work with Octave Gengou led to serological tests for many diseases, including typhoid, tuberculosis, and syphilis (the Wassermann test). In 1906 they discovered Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough. In 1919 Bordet received a Nobel Prize.

Learn more about Bordet, Jules (-Jean-Baptiste–Vincent) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Jules Perrot, engraving after a drawing.

(born Aug. 18, 1810, Lyon, Fr.—died Aug. 24, 1892, Paramé) French dancer and choreographer. After studying with Auguste Vestris, he debuted at the Paris Opéra in 1830. He often partnered Marie Taglioni until 1835, when he left the company to tour in Europe. He choreographed several ballets for Carlotta Grisi, probably including the famous solos in Giselle. As dancer and ballet master in London (1842–48) and St. Petersburg (1848–58), he choreographed many important Romantic ballets with an expressive, dramatic style. In his later years he gave classes at the Paris Opéra.

Learn more about Perrot, Jules (-Joseph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 13, 1870, Soignies, Belg.—died April 6, 1961, Brussels) Belgian bacteriologist and immunologist. In 1895 he found that two blood serum components cause bacteriolysis (bacterial cell-wall rupture), one a heat-stable antibody in animals immune to the bacterium and the other a heat-sensitive complement in all animals. In 1898 he discovered hemolysis (rupture of foreign erythrocytes), a similar process that also requires complement. This research was vital to the foundation of serology, the study of immune reactions in body fluids. His work with Octave Gengou led to serological tests for many diseases, including typhoid, tuberculosis, and syphilis (the Wassermann test). In 1906 they discovered Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough. In 1919 Bordet received a Nobel Prize.

Learn more about Bordet, Jules (-Jean-Baptiste–Vincent) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mathieu Basile

Guesde, 1906

(born Nov. 12, 1845, Paris, France—died July 28, 1922, Saint-Mandé) French labour organizer. He consulted with Karl Marx in 1880 on a socialist program, adopted by a French labour congress, that called on workers to elect representatives who would “conduct the class struggle in the halls of parliament.” He was opposed by “possibilists,” who advocated collective bargaining and support for progressive candidates regardless of party affiliation. He founded the socialist weekly L'Égalité, served in the Chamber of Deputies from 1893, and was minister without portfolio (1914–15).

Learn more about Guesde, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 26, 1929, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. cartoonist and dramatist. Feiffer learned his trade while assisting comic-strip artists. He became famous for Feiffer, a satirical strip whose verbal elements are usually monologues in which the speaker (sometimes pathetic, sometimes pompous) exposes his or her own insecurities. His drawings, syndicated from 1959, are collected in books beginning with Sick, Sick, Sick (1958). In 1986 he received a Pulitzer Prize. His plays, including Little Murders (1967; film, 1971), also blend farce and social criticism. His other works include novels, screenplays (including Carnal Knowledge, 1971), and, in the 1990s, children's books.

Learn more about Feiffer, Jules with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Jules Auguste Armand Marie, Prince de Polignac (Versailles, 14 May 1780 Paris, 2 March 1847), was a French statesman. He played a conspicuous part in ultra-royalist reaction after the Revolution. He was appointed Prime minister by Charles X just before the 1830 July Revolution which overthrew the Bourbon Restoration.

Biography

Jules was the son of Jules, comte de Polignac (1746-1817), who was created a duc in 1780, and Gabrielle de Polastron, comtesse de Polignac (1749-1793), governess to the children of Marie-Antoinette. The young Jules was raised in the environment of the court of Versailles. Under the empire he was implicated in the conspiracy of Cadoudal and Pichegru (1804), and was imprisoned till 1813. After the restoration of the Bourbons he held various offices, received from the pope his title of "prince" in 1820, and in 1823 was made ambassador to the English court.

Polignac was an ultra-royalist who believed that the power in France should be given back to the monarch and the noble classes. It is widely believed that the reason for Polignac supporting hardline Ultra (-Royalist) policies was that he was receiving Divine inspiration from the Virgin Mary. Despite being a widely held view, there is little evidence to prove this was his motivation, there is no mention of this in Polignac's personal memoirs or the memoirs of the Restoration court.

On 8 August 1829 Charles X appointed him to the ministry of foreign affairs, and in the following November Polignac became president of the council. His appointment was considered a step by the king towards overthrowing the constitution, and Polignac, with the other ministers, was held responsible for the policy which culminated in the issue of the Four Ordinances which were the immediate cause of the revolution of July 1830.

On the outbreak of this he fled for his life, but, after wandering for some time among the wilds of Normandy, was arrested at Granville. His trial before the chamber of peers resulted in his condemnation to perpetual imprisonment (at Ham), but he benefited by the amnesty of 1836, when the sentence was commuted to one of exile. During his captivity he wrote Considerations politiques (1832). He afterwards spent some years in England, but finally was permitted to re-enter France on condition that he did not take up his abode in Paris.

He died at St. Germain in 1847; a month before, he had assumed the title of Duc de Polignac upon the death of his older brother.

Jules married twice, first to Barbara Campbell (1788-1819), and, after Barbara's death, to Maria Charlotte Parkyns (1792-1864). He fathered seven children, including Prince Alphonse de Polignac (1826-1863), inventor of the mathematical theory of twin primes; Prince Ludovic de Polignac (1827-1904), a lieutenant-colonel in the French Army who participated in the colonization of Algeria; Prince Camille Armand Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac (1832-1913), a major-general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and a mathematician; and Prince Edmond de Polignac (1834-1901), a composer and theorist of the octatonic scale.

Literature

  • W. Schlésinger, Les femmes du XVIIIe siècle: La duchesse de Polignac et son temps (Paris, 1889)

Notes

External links

Search another word or see juleson Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature