Jones, Anson, 1798-1858, last president of the Texas republic (1844-46), b. Seekonk section of Great Barrington, Mass. He studied medicine and after an itinerant business and medical career went (1833) to Texas and became a doctor. He joined the revolutionary forces in the war against Mexico and was present at the battle of San Jacinto (1836). Entering politics, Jones was a member of the Texas congress, was appointed (1838) by President Sam Houston as minister to the United States, was dismissed (1839) by President Mirabeau B. Lamar, and served as a senator. His appointment as secretary of state in the second Houston administration (1841-44) prepared the way for his election as president in 1844. Following the annexation of Texas, Jones resigned (1846) his authority to the new governor of the state. He committed suicide in 1858.

See biography by H. Gambrell (1948).

Jones, Antony Armstrong: see Snowdon, Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of.
Jones, Bill T. (William Tass Jones), 1952-, American dancer and choreographer, b. Bunnell, Fla. A gay African American who has experienced dual prejudices, he has often brilliantly transformed his anger and autobiography into dance. He early became known for highly confrontational, sexually and racially charged dances that obliterated boundaries between the public and private. He and Arnie Zane were life and dance partners from 1971 until Zane died of AIDS (1988), and Jones has continued to direct the Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Dance Company (est. 1982). Since the late 1980s Jones, who is HIV-positive, has taken mourning and mortality as themes, as in Absence (1989), Last Night on Earth (1992), and his best-known work, Still/Here (1994), a multimedia exploration of death, dying, and survival. Later work, which also reaches beyond dance's traditional parameters, includes The Breathing Show (2000), a solo piece that includes music, speech, and film; the multilayered Reading, Mercy and the Artificial Nigger (2003), an ensemble work based on a story by Flannery O'Connor; Blind Date (2005), with segments that explore war, urban poverty, and repressive sexual mores; and Chapel/Chapter (2006), a powerful interpretation of three contemporary stories, two involving murder, that reflect his social and moral concerns. Resident choreographer of the Lyons Opera Ballet since 1993 and at City College (1998-2001), he has also directed opera and theater.

See his memoir, Last Night on Earth (1995).

See his memoir (with P. Gillespie), Last Night on Earth (1995).

Jones, Bobby: see Jones, Robert Tyre, Jr.
Jones, Brian, 1947-, British balloonist, b. Bristol. A former Royal Air Force pilot, he entered the world of ballooning in the 1980s, and in 1997 became an organizer for the attempt of the British-built, Swiss-sponsored Breitling Orbiter 3 to circle the world nonstop. On Mar. 1-20, 1999, he and Dr. Jacques Piccard (see under Piccard, Auguste) succeeded where many had failed, floating from Switzerland southwest to Mauritania, then eastward across Africa, Asia, the Pacific, North America, and the Atlantic to a landing in the Egyptian desert. They wrote Around the World in 20 Days (1999) about their flight.
Jones, Casey, 1864-1900, American locomotive engineer celebrated in ballad and song, probably b. Jordan, Fulton co., Ky. His real name was John Luther Jones, but at the age of 17 he went to Cayce, Ky., and there he was employed as a telegraph operator; from the name of the town he was given the nickname "Casey." In 1888 he entered the service of the Illinois Central RR as a locomotive fireman and soon (1890) was promoted to engineer. He was famous among railroad men for his boast that he always brought his train in on schedule and for his peculiar skill with a locomotive whistle. Given the "crack" assignment of driving the Cannon Ball express from Memphis, Tenn., to Canton, Miss.—a particularly dangerous run on which several accidents had occurred—Casey Jones was determined to bring the overdue train in on time but met with disaster. On the morning of Apr. 30, 1900, confronted with a stationary freight train ahead of his speeding locomotive at Vaughan, Miss., he ordered his fireman to jump. He applied the brakes, and although the Cannon Ball crashed and Jones was killed, the passengers were saved. A fellow railroad worker, Wallace Saunders, soon composed a popular ballad about him; one version of it, Casey Jones, was published by T. Lawrence Siebert and Eddie Newton. Monuments commemorating Jones stand at Cayce, Ky., and Jackson, Tenn. He was buried at Jackson, Tenn.

See biography by F. J. Lee (1939).

Jones, Davy: see Davy Jones.
Jones, Sir Edward Burne-: see Burne-Jones.
Jones, Ernest, 1879-1958, British psychoanalyst, b. Wales. He taught (1910-13) at the Univ. of Toronto and was director (1908-13) of the Ontario Clinic for Nervous Diseases. He founded the International Journal of Psychoanalysis and served as its editor from 1920 to 1939. In 1925, he founded the London Clinic for Psycho-analysis. A follower and colleague of Sigmund Freud, Jones was instrumental in introducing the study of psychoanalysis into England and the United States and coined the term rationalization as a corollary to the theory of defense mechanisms. Considered an authoritative biographer of Freud, his writings include The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (3 vol., 1953-57) and Free Associations: Memories of a Psychoanalyst (1959).

See biography by V. Brome (1983).

Jones, Ernest Charles, 1819-69, English radical, lawyer, journalist, and poet. He was a prominent leader of the more militant wing of the Chartists (see Chartism). After imprisonment for sedition (1848-50), he edited a radical journal and later practiced as a lawyer. The Battle Day and Other Poems (1855) and his other labor verse have more literary merit than his sensational novels.

See his writings and speeches (ed. by J. Saville, 1952).

Jones, Henry: see Cavendish.
Jones, Henry Arthur, 1851-1929, English playwright. His reputation was first established with the melodrama The Silver King (with Henry Herman; 1882). Strongly influenced by the great Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, Jones turned to writing dramas of social and moral criticism. He was the author of over 60 plays, of which The Middleman (1889), Michael and His Lost Angel (1896), The Liars (1897), and Mrs. Dane's Defense (1900) are among the most important. His critical works include The Renascence of the English Drama (1895) and The Theatre of Ideas (1915).
Jones, Inigo, 1573-1652, one of England's first great architects. Son of a London clothmaker, he was enabled to travel in Europe before 1603 to study paintings, perhaps at the expense of the earl of Rutland. On a second trip to Italy (1613-14) he thoroughly studied the remains of Roman architecture and the Renaissance buildings by Palladio. At the English courts of both James I and Charles I he designed settings for elaborate masques, some of which he wrote. Besides performing various architectural services for the crown, he was also sponsored by the earl of Arundel. After renewed visits to Italy, Jones became (1615) king's surveyor of the works. In 1616 he began work on the Queen's House, Greenwich, the first English design to embody Palladian principles. He then built (1619-22) the royal Banqueting House in Whitehall, London, again adapting the classical proportions and use of architectural elements he had learned in Italy. He also made designs for St. Paul's church, Covent Garden, and its square (1631-38). He built other houses in London and in the country; especially outstanding is his advisory work on Wilton House, Wiltshire (built 1649-53). Making a clean break from the prevailing Jacobean style, he achieved a magnificent coherence of design. The work of Inigo Jones marked a starting point for the classical architecture of the late Renaissance and Georgian periods in England.

See study by S. Orgel and R. Strong (2 vol., 1973).

Jones, James, 1921-77, American novelist, b. Robinson, Ill. Written in the tradition of naturalism, his novels often celebrate the endurance of man. From Here to Eternity (1951), his best-known work and the first of a trilogy, is a powerful story of army life in Hawaii immediately before the attack on Pearl Harbor; The Thin Red Line (1962) and Whistle (1978) complete the series. His other novels include Some Came Running (1957) and A Touch of Danger (1973). Viet Journal (1974) is an account of his trip to Vietnam.

See biography by F. MacShane (1985); study by J. R. Giles (1981).

Jones, James Earl, 1931-, American actor, b. Tate co., Miss. Jones achieved Broadway stardom with his powerful portrayal of the fighter Jack Johnson in The Great White Hope (1968). He made his stage debut at the Univ. of Michigan and appeared thereafter for seven years with the New York Shakespeare Festival in Macbeth (1962), Othello (1963), and King Lear (1973), among many others. On Broadway, he appeared in The Iceman Cometh (1973), Of Mice and Men (1974), and Athol Fugard's A Lesson from Aloes (1980). He returned triumphantly to the stage in August Wilson's Pulitzer Prize-winning Fences (1987). Jones has had supporting roles in numerous films, most notably as the voice of the villain Darth Vader in Star Wars (1977), The Empire Strikes Back (1980), and Return of the Jedi (1983).
Jones, Jesse Holman, 1874-1956, U.S. Secretary of Commerce (1940-45), b. Robertson co., Tenn. A lumber magnate, banker, and millionaire of Houston, Tex., Jones was appointed (1932) by President Hoover as a member of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC). He became (1933) its chairman under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and, with the merging of the RFC with other federal agencies, he was appointed (1939) federal loan administrator. Jones's performance in the RFC won such high praise that, after his appointment (1940) as Secretary of Commerce, Congress transferred the RFC from the Federal Loan Agency to the Department of Commerce. His close ties with the business community made him indispensable to the Roosevelt administration, and during World War II he was one of the most powerful men in Washington, D.C. He retired from government service in 1945.

See his Fifty Billion Dollars (1951).

Jones, Jim, 1931-78, American religious leader, b. Lynn, Indiana. An influential Indianapolis preacher since the 1950s, Jones formed the People's Temple (1955), which he eventually moved to Ukiah, Calif. (1967) and then San Francisco (1971). After Jones became the subject of criminal investigations, particularly regarding his alleged diversion of cult members' donations for his personal use, he and about 1,000 followers relocated to a commune (Jonestown) that he established in Guyana (1977). In Nov., 1978, U.S. Congressman Leo J. Ryan and four others were killed by cult members as they were leaving after an investigatory visit. The following day, Jones orchestrated the mass suicide of 912 followers, who were compelled to drink cyanide-laced punch. Jones died the same day of a bullet wound to the head.

See K. Levi, ed., Violence and Relgious Commitment (1982); J. M. Weightman, Making Sense of the Jonestown Suicides (1984); D. Chidester, Salvation and Suicide (1988).

Jones, John Paul, 1747-92, American naval hero, b. near Kirkcudbright, Scotland. His name was originally simply John Paul.

Early Life

John Paul went to sea when he was 12, and his youth was adventure-filled. He was chief mate on a slave ship in 1766 but, disgusted with the work, soon quit. In 1769 he obtained command of the John, a merchantman that he captained until 1770. In 1773, while Jones was in command of the Betsy off Tobago, members of his crew mutinied and he killed one of the sailors in self-defense. To avoid trial he fled. In 1775 he was in Philadelphia, with the Jones added to his name; Joseph Hewes of Edenton, N.C., obtained for him a commission in the Continental navy.

Revolutionary War Hero

In 1777, Jones was given command of the Ranger, fresh from the Portsmouth shipyard. He sailed to France, then daringly took the war to the very shores of the British Isles on raids. In 1778, he captured the Drake, a British warship.

It was, however, only after long delay that he was given another ship, an old French merchantman, which he rebuilt and named the Bon Homme Richard ("Poor Richard"), to honor Benjamin Franklin. He set out with a small fleet but was disappointed in the hope of meeting a British fleet returning from the Baltic until the projected cruise was nearly finished. On Sept. 23, 1779, he did encounter the British merchantmen, convoyed by the frigate Serapis and a smaller warship. Despite the superiority of the Serapis, Jones did not hesitate.

The battle, which began at sunset and ended more than three and a half hours later by moonlight, was one of the most memorable in naval history. Jones sailed close in, to cut the advantage of the Serapis, and finally in the battle lashed the Bon Homme Richard to the British ship. Both ships were heavily damaged. The Serapis was afire in at least 12 different places. The hull of the Bon Homme Richard was pierced, her decks were ripped, her hold was filling with water, and fires were destroying her, unchecked; yet when the British captain asked if Jones was ready to surrender, the answer came proudly, "Sir, I have not yet begun to fight." When the Serapis surrendered, Jones and his men boarded her while his own vessel sank. He was much honored in France for the victory but received little recognition in the United States.

Later Life

After the Revolution Jones was sent to Europe to collect the prize money due the United States. In 1788 he was asked by Catherine the Great to join the Russian navy; he accepted on the condition that he become a rear admiral. His command against the Turks in the Black Sea was successful, but political intrigue prevented his getting due credit. In 1789 he was discharged from the Russian navy and returned to Paris. There in the midst of the French Revolution he died, without receiving the commission that Jefferson had procured for him to negotiate with the dey of Algiers concerning American prisoners.

Although he is today generally considered among the greatest of American naval heroes and the founder of the American naval tradition, his grave was forgotten until the ambassador to France, Horace E. Porter, discovered it in 1905 after the expenditure of much of his own time and money. The remains were removed to Annapolis and since 1913 have been enshrined in a crypt at the U.S. Naval Academy.


See his memoirs (1830, repr. 1972); A. De Koven, Life and Letters of John Paul Jones (1913); F. A. Golder, John Paul Jones in Russia (1927); L. Lorenz, John Paul Jones (1943, repr. 1969); G. W. Johnson, The First Captain (1947); S. E. Morison, John Paul Jones: A Sailor's Biography (1959, repr. 1964); E. Thomas, John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy (2003).

Jones, LeRoi: see Baraka, Amiri.
Jones, Mary Harris, 1830-1930, American labor agitator, called Mother Jones, b. Ireland. Interested in the labor movement for many years, she became active in it after the death of her husband and four children (1867) from yellow fever. She won fame as an effective speaker and by 1880 was a prominent figure in the movement. One of the founders of the Social Democratic party (1898) and the Industrial Workers of the World (1905), she was active in organizing miners, garment workers, and streetcar workers. In 1913, her organizing activities were blamed for violence in West Virginia coal fields and she was convicted of conspiracy to commit murder. The sentence was commuted, and in 1914 her graphic description of the massacre of 20 people by machine-gun fire during a Ludlow, Colo., miner's strike convinced President Wilson to try to mediate the dispute. A long-time champion of laws to end child labor, she continued as a union organizer and agitator into her nineties. She wrote an autobiography in 1925, which contains some factual inaccuracies.

See biographies by D. Fetherling (1974) and E. J. Gorn (2001).

Jones, Mother: see Jones, Mary Harris.
Jones, Quincy (Quincy Delight Jones, Jr.), 1933-, African-American musician, composer, bandleader, and music executive, b. Chicago. Jones played trumpet and sang gospel growing up, and studied briefly at Boston's Berklee College of Music (then called Schillinger House). After 1951 he played with Lionel Hampton and Dizzy Gillespie and was also an arranger for such jazz greats as Duke Ellington, Tommy Dorsey, Count Basie, and his childhood friend Ray Charles. Jones traveled to Paris in 1957, where he studied composition with Nadia Boulanger and Olivier Messiaen, became music director for Mercury Records' French division, and briefly (1960-61) led a big band.

Returning to New York in the early 1960s, Jones became a vice president at Mercury, breaking the executive color barrier there. He also began to compose for films and television, including scores for The Pawnbroker (1965), In Cold Blood (1967), and The Wiz (1978). He coproduced the film The Color Purple (1985) and was responsible for several TV sitcoms. From 1979 to 1987 he produced Michael Jackson's chartbuster albums, catapulting the singer to superstardom. Jones also founded (1980) a record company, established (1990) Vibe magazine, and formed (1991) Qwest Broacasting.

See his autobiography (2001).

Jones, Robert Edmond, 1887-1954, American scene designer, b. Milton, N.H. With his design in 1915 for The Man Who Married a Dumb Wife, a new era of scene design began in the United States. His use of color and dramatic lighting enhanced his imaginative sets. Some of Jones's most notable designs were for Macbeth, Richard III, Hamlet (for John Barrymore), and The Green Pastures. After work with the Washington Square Players, he joined Kenneth Macgowan at the Greenwich Village Theatre; working in conjunction with the Provincetown Players, he created sets for the plays of Eugene O'Neill. Jones did the designing for the early three-color-process film La Cucaracha (1933). He wrote Drawings for the Theatre (1925), The Dramatic Imagination (1941), and, with Kenneth Macgowan, Continental Stagecraft (1922).

See The Theatre of Robert Edmond Jones (ed. by R. Pendleton, 1958).

Jones, Robert Tyre, Jr. (Bobby Jones), 1902-71, American golfer, b. Atlanta, Ga. A lawyer, he became a golf devotee. Jones won the National Open (1923, 1926, 1929-30), the National Amateur (1924-25, 1927-28, 1930), and the British Open (1926-27, 1930). A perfectionist given to temper tantrums in his younger years, he came to be admired for his unfailing sportsmanship. In 1930 Jones became the only player ever to achieve golf's grand slam—winning in the same year the National Open, the National Amateur, the British Open, and the British Amateur championships. He then retired from tournament play. Along with Alister McKenzie he designed the Augusta National Golf Course and founded the Masters there in 1934. In 1948 he suffered a crippling spinal cord injury that eventually caused his death.
Jones, Samuel Milton, 1846-1904, American political reformer, known as "Golden Rule" Jones, b. Wales. He was brought to America as a child and worked in the oil fields of Pennsylvania and Ohio. He invented improvements in oil-drilling machinery, and after the oil trust refused to handle these inventions, Jones manufactured them himself—very successfully—in Toledo, Ohio. He was noted for his advanced program of employee-management relations. Elected (1897) mayor of Toledo on the Republican ticket, he put into operation a comprehensive program of municipal reform. When refused renomination in 1899, he ran as an independent and overwhelmingly defeated both political machines. He was reelected in 1901 and 1903 and died in office. During his administration he established civil service and instituted the eight-hour day and minimum wages for city employees.

See his autobiography, The New Right (1899).

Jones, Thomas ap Catesby, 1789-1858, American naval officer, b. Westmoreland co., Va. He joined the navy in 1805 and helped suppress piracy and the slave trade in the Gulf of Mexico (1808-12). In the War of 1812 he made a desperate and unsuccessful effort to halt the fleet carrying the British army to New Orleans from crossing Lake Borgne (1814). In 1826 he made a visit to Hawaii that increased U.S. prestige in those islands. In 1842, acting upon a rumor that the United States and Mexico were at war, he captured Monterey, Calif. For this action he was removed from command but not otherwise censured. He served as Herman Melville's model for "Commodore J" in his novel White Jacket.
Jones, Sir William, 1746-94, English philologist and jurist. Jones was celebrated for his understanding of jurisprudence and of Oriental languages. He published an Essay on the Law of Bailments (1781), widely used in America as well as in England. For 11 years he was a supreme court judge in Calcutta (now Kolkata). Jones founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal at Calcutta. Through the Society, as well as through his publications, he had a great influence on literature, Asian study, and philology in Western Europe. Jones was the first to suggest that Sanskrit originated from the same source as Latin and Greek, thus laying the foundation for modern comparative philology.

See his letters, ed. by G. Cannon (2 vol., 1970); study by S. N. Mukherjee (1987).

Very, Jones, 1813-80, American poet, b. Salem, Mass., studied at Harvard Divinity School. His mystical poems express his belief in total surrender to the will of God and his reverence for nature as a symbol of the Divine. Emerson edited Very's Essays and Poems (1839). Posthumous volumes of Very's works were Poems (1883) and Poems and Essays (ed. by J. F. Clarke, 1886).
Jones is a town in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, United States, and a part of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area. The population was 2,517 at the 2000 census. Jones is a popular destination for recreational cyclists from around the Oklahoma City metropolitan area, despite many of the businesses being non-cyclist friendly.


Jones is located at (35.564510, -97.290860).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 13.7 square miles (35.4 km²), all of it land.


As of the census of 2000, there were 2,517 people, 914 households, and 673 families residing in the town. The population density was 184.2 people per square mile (71.1/km²). There were 986 housing units at an average density of 72.2/sq mi (27.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 88.16% White, 4.41% African American, 3.34% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.60% from other races, and 3.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.94% of the population.

There were 914 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.9% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.3% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the town the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $36,806, and the median income for a family was $41,495. Males had a median income of $31,406 versus $23,393 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,388. About 9.5% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.6% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over.


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