Jonas

Jonas

[joh-nuh]
Savimbi, Jonas, 1934-2002, Angolan rebel leader. He was a founding member of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) in 1966. Savimbi was included in the interim independent government with Neto and Roberto in 1974 but returned to armed opposition when Neto's Marxist government was established. Aided by the United States and South Africa, he led a guerrilla war over much of Angola (1975-91) until a cease-fire was achieved. Running for president, Savimbi refused to accept his defeat in the 1992 elections, and UNITA resumed armed conflict with government forces, initially with much success. After reverses in 1994, however, UNITA signed a new peace accord; under it Savimbi was offered one of two Angolan vice presidencies, which he declined. With renewed warfare in 1998, the government said it would no longer recognize the 1994 agreement or deal with Savimbi, instead recognizing a splinter group, UNITA Renovada. Savimbi was killed in an ambush in 2002.
Jonas, Greek form of Hebrew Jonah. St. Peter's father is called Jonas and Jona (KJV) and John (RSV).
Jonas, Franz, 1899-1974, Austrian Socialist politician. Jonas was mayor of Vienna (1951-65) and a member of parliament (1962-65). In 1965 he was elected president, and in 1971 he was reelected, defeating Kurt Waldheim.
Jonas, Justus, 1493-1555, German Protestant reformer. In 1521, Jonas, then a professor at the Univ. of Erfurt, accompanied Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms. During their intimate friendship Jonas assisted Luther with the translation of the Bible. He also translated the Latin works of Luther and Melanchthon into German. He was present at Luther's death and preached his funeral sermon.

(born Aug. 3, 1934, Portuguese Angola—died Feb. 22, 2002, near Lucusse, Angola) Angolan guerrilla leader and politician. After obtaining a doctorate abroad, Savimbi returned to found the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) in 1966. With aid from China, South Africa, and the U.S., UNITA developed a large guerrilla army and embarked on an extended war against the Soviet-backed Angolan government. In 1991 Savimbi agreed to participate in free multiparty elections, but after losing he resumed his military campaign. A peace accord (1994) and later agreements (1996) permitted UNITA to join a coalition government; many of the agreements' measures were carried out under UN auspices, but Savimbi declined to become vice president, and violence continued until his death. UNITA signed a peace agreement in April 2002.

Learn more about Savimbi, Jonas (Malheiro) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif.) U.S. physician and researcher. He received his M.D. from New York University. Working with other scientists to classify poliovirus, he confirmed earlier studies that identified three strains. He showed that killed virus of each strain could induce antibody formation without producing disease. Salk's vaccine was released for use in the U.S. in 1955. From 1963 he directed the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977.

Learn more about Salk, Jonas (Edward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 6, 1833, Hokksund in Eiker, Nor.—died July 5, 1908, Stavern) Norwegian novelist. He wrote his first novel, The Visionary or Pictures from Nordland (1870), with his wife's collaboration. Later novels include The Barque “Future” (1872), One of Life's Slaves (1883), and the classic The Family at Gilje (1883), which deals with the position of women. He sought to reflect in his writings the nature, folk life, and social spirit of his country. With Henrik Ibsen, Bjornstjerne Bjornson, and Alexander Kielland (1849–1906), he is considered one of “the four great ones” of 19th-century Norwegian literature.

Learn more about Lie, Jonas (Lauritz Idemil) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 3, 1934, Portuguese Angola—died Feb. 22, 2002, near Lucusse, Angola) Angolan guerrilla leader and politician. After obtaining a doctorate abroad, Savimbi returned to found the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) in 1966. With aid from China, South Africa, and the U.S., UNITA developed a large guerrilla army and embarked on an extended war against the Soviet-backed Angolan government. In 1991 Savimbi agreed to participate in free multiparty elections, but after losing he resumed his military campaign. A peace accord (1994) and later agreements (1996) permitted UNITA to join a coalition government; many of the agreements' measures were carried out under UN auspices, but Savimbi declined to become vice president, and violence continued until his death. UNITA signed a peace agreement in April 2002.

Learn more about Savimbi, Jonas (Malheiro) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 6, 1833, Hokksund in Eiker, Nor.—died July 5, 1908, Stavern) Norwegian novelist. He wrote his first novel, The Visionary or Pictures from Nordland (1870), with his wife's collaboration. Later novels include The Barque “Future” (1872), One of Life's Slaves (1883), and the classic The Family at Gilje (1883), which deals with the position of women. He sought to reflect in his writings the nature, folk life, and social spirit of his country. With Henrik Ibsen, Bjornstjerne Bjornson, and Alexander Kielland (1849–1906), he is considered one of “the four great ones” of 19th-century Norwegian literature.

Learn more about Lie, Jonas (Lauritz Idemil) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif.) U.S. physician and researcher. He received his M.D. from New York University. Working with other scientists to classify poliovirus, he confirmed earlier studies that identified three strains. He showed that killed virus of each strain could induce antibody formation without producing disease. Salk's vaccine was released for use in the U.S. in 1955. From 1963 he directed the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977.

Learn more about Salk, Jonas (Edward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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