Jolo, island (345 sq mi/894 sq km), Sulu Archipelago, the Philippines. The seaport city, Jolo (1990 pop. 53,055), on the northwest coast of the island, is the capital of Sulu prov., the trading and shipping hub of the archipelago, and a Muslim center. An ancient walled city, it was once a pirate base and served as the residence of a sultan until the sultanate was abolished in 1940. The city was almost completely destroyed in 1974 when fighting erupted between government forces and Moro (Muslim) insurgents who were seeking to establish a secessionist state. After the battle, the rebels withdrew into the island's interior to fight a war of attrition that lasted until a detente was reached in 1990. Fundamentalist Islamic rebels on the island were involved in hostage-taking incidents in 2000, provoking a military assault in response, and Jolo has been the scene of fighting with Moro rebels several times since.

Jolo is a volcanic island in the southwest Philippines. It is located in the Sulu Archipelago, between Mindanao and Borneo, and has a population of approximately 300,000 people. Jolo is also the name of the town on the island which serves as the capital of the province of Sulu. About a third of the island's population live in the municipality of Jolo.

Fighting on the island intensified in February 2005 when between 4,000 and 5,000 Philippine troops clashed with around 800 Islamist militants from the Abu Sayyaf group, along with followers of Nur Misuari. Up to 12,000 people were thought to have fled the fighting.

The island contains numerous volcanic cones and craters, including the active Bud Dajo cinder cone.

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