John Hadley

John Hadley

Hadley, John, 1682-1744, English instrument maker. An optician by trade, Hadley built reflecting telescopes, based on Newton's model, that had greater resolution than the cumbersome refractors then in use. In 1731 he built a reflecting octant, based on Newton's sketch, that prefigured the modern nautical sextant. Hadley was a leading member of the Royal Society.
John Hadley (April 16, 1682 Bloomsbury, LondonFebruary 14, 1744, East Barnet, Hertfordshire) English mathematician inventor of the octant, the precursor to the sextant, around 1730.

He also worked , along with Edmund Halley , on the subject of the trade winds. In 1717 he became member (and later vice-president ) of the Royal Society of London.

The octant is used to measure the altitude of the Sun or other celestial objects above the horizon at sea. A mobile arm carrying a mirror and pivoting on a graduated arc provides a reflected image of the celestial body overlapping the image of the horizon, which is observed directly . If the position of the object on the sky and the time of the observation are known, it is easy for the user to calculate his own latitude. The octant proved extremely valuable for navigation and displaced the use of other instruments such as the Davis quadrant.

An American, Thomas Godfrey, independently invented the octant at approximately the same time.

Hadley also improved the reflecting telescope, building the first Gregorian telescope in 1721.

Mons Hadley and Rima Hadley on the Moon are named after him.

He is the older brother of George Hadley (meteorologogist).


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