or job seeking
is the act of looking for employment
, due to unemployment
or discontent with a current position. The immediate goal of job seeking is usually to obtain a job interview
with an employer
which may lead to getting hired
. The job hunter or seeker typically first looks for job vacancies or employment opportunities. Common methods of job hunting are:
Knowing the employers
It is expected the job seekers will have done a reasonable amount of research into the employers. Some basic information about an employer should be collected first before applying the organization's positions, including full name, locations, web site, business description, year established, revenues, number of employees, stock price if public, name of chief executive officer, major products or services, major competitors, strength as well as challenges.
With all of the resources available on the Internet, expand the research into the employer to discover if the employer's operation is healthy and likely to continue to prosper. If an employer's financial situation is shaky, new employees are often the first one out the door when a cut back occurs. Employers that are companies with publicly traded equities are good subjects for pre-employment research and enable the job hunter to avoid being the last one hired before the reductions and layoffs begin.
Contacting as many people as possible is the best way to find a job. It is estimated that 60% or higher of all jobs are found through networking.
One can also go and hand out résumés
or Curriculum Vitae
to prospective employers. Another recommended method of job hunting is to use cold calling
to companies that one desires to work for and inquire to whether there are any job vacancies.
After finding a desirable job, they would then apply for the job by responding to the advertisement. This may mean emailing or mailing in a hard copy of your résumé to a prospective employer. There is no one correct way to write a résumé but it is generally recommended that it be brief, organized, concise, and targeted to the position being sought. With certain occupations, such as graphic design or writing, portfolios of a job seeker's previous work are essential and are evaluated as much, if not more than the person's résumé. With most other occupations, the résumé should focus on past accomplishments, expressed in terms as concretely as possible (e.g. number of people managed, amount of increased sales or improved customer satisfaction).
Once an employer has received your résumé, they will make a short list of potential employees to be interviewed based on the resume and any other information contributed. During the interview process, interviewers generally look for persons who they believe will be best for the job and work environment. The interview may occur in several rounds until the interviewer is satisfied and offers the job to the applicant.
Types of Jobs
There are several types of jobs, including full-time long-term regular jobs, internship, or contract jobs.
Job hunting in economic theory
Economists use the term 'frictional unemployment
' to mean unemployment resulting from the time and effort that must be expended before an appropriate job is found. Search theory
is the economic theory that studies the optimal decision of how much time and effort to spend searching, and which offers to accept or reject (in the context of a job hunt, or likewise in other contexts like searching for a low price).