A jirga (occasionally jirgah) (Pashto: جرګه ) is a tribal assembly of elders which takes decisions by consensus, particularly among the Pashtun but also in other ethnic groups near them; they are most common in Afghanistan and among the Pashtun in Pakistan near its border with Afghanistan.
The jirga was also used as a court in cases of criminal conduct, but this usage is being replaced by formal courts in some settled areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, elsewhere it is still used as courts in tribal regions.
The jirga holds the prestige of a court in the tribal areas of Pakistan. Although a Political Agent, appointed by the national government, maintains law and order through Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR), the actual power lies in the jirga. The political agent maintains law and order in his tribal region with the help of jirgas. The jirga can award capital punishment, stoning to death in case of adultery, or expulsion from the community.
The Sindh High Court imposed a ban on the holding of jirgas in April 2004 because of the sometimes inhumane sentences awarded to people, especially the women. But the ban has been blatantly ignored and nothing has been done about it so far.
In the recent military operation against al Qaeda and Taliban in Pakistan's restive southern tribal agencies bordering Afghanistan, jirgas played a key role of moderator between the government and the militants.