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jantu

List of monarchs of Sri Lanka

The following is a list of monarchs of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) since 505 BC. The main source for many of these monarchs are the chronicles of the island maintained by monks, known as the Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa, and the Chulavamsa. This list should be used with the following factors kept in mind. Firstly the dates provided for the earliest monarchs are difficult to objectively verify; those which are particularly difficult to know have been denoted with a (?) mark. Secondly in terms of succession it is difficult to divide the monarchs into 'houses' or 'dynasties' as often the throne was passed around amongst related individuals within a particular clan; especially in medieval times there were no articulated rules of succession and whoever was in possession of the sacred Tooth Relic had a good claim to being called king.

Note on Chronology

It should be borne in mind that there is controversy about the base date of the Buddhist Era, with 544 BC and 483 BC being advanced as the date of the parinibbana of the Buddha. As Wilhelm Geiger pointed out, the Dipawamsa and Mahawamsa are the primary sources for ancient South Asian chronology; they date the consecration (abhisheka) of Asoka to 218 years after the parinibbana. Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne 56 years prior to this, or 162 years after the parinibbana. The approximate date of Chandragupta's ascension is known to be within two years of 321 BC (from Megasthenes). Hence the approximate date of the parinibbana is between 485 and 481 BC - which accords well with the Mahayana dating of 483 BC.

The difference between the two reckonings seems to have occurred at sometime between the reigns of Udaya III (946-954 or 1007-1015)and Pârakkama Pandya (c. 1046-1048), when there was considerable unrest in the country.

The chronology of the following list is based on the the traditional Sri Lankan system which is based on 544 BC, or 61 years earlier than the Mahayana calender. The dates after c 1048 are synchronous.

Vijayan monarchs (543 BC–237 BC)

from Tambapanni (Thammanna Nuwara) (553 BC–505 BC)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Vijaya - - 543 BC 505 BC *Eldest child of Sihabahu and Sinhasivali
*Grandson of Suppadevi
*Great Grandson of the king of Vanga and daughter of the king of Kalinga
*Great Great Grandson of the king of Kalinga

from Vijitapura (Upatissa Nuwara) (505 BC–454 BC)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Upatissa
(regent)
- - 505 BC 504 BC *Chief Minister under Vijaya
align="center"|Panduvasdeva - - 504 BC 474 BC *Nephew of Vijaya
align="center"|Abhaya - - 474 BC 454 BC *Son of Panduvasdeva
align="center"|Tissa
(regent) (interregnum of seventeen years)
- - 454 BC 437 BC *Second son of Panduvasudeva
*younger brother of Abhaya

Kings of Rajarata from Anuradhapura (237 BC–777)

Anuradhapuran monarchs (437 BC–237 BC)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Pandukabhaya - - 437 BC 367 BC *Grandson of Panduvasudeva
*Son of Princess Umaddha Citta
*Nephew of Abhaya and Tissa
align="center"|Mutasiva - - 367 BC 307 BC *Son of Pandukabhaya
align="center"|Devanampiya Tissa - 267 BC 307 BC 267 BC *Second son of Mutasiva
align="center"|Uttiya - - 267 BC 257 BC *Brother of Devanampiya Tissa
align="center"|Mahasiva - - 257 BC 247 BC *Second (younger) brother of Devanampiya Tissa
align="center"|Suratissa - - 247 BC 237 BC *Younger brother of Mutasiva

The Two Chola Kings (237 BC–215 BC)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Sena Chola - - 237 BC 215 BC *Defeated Suratissa in battle and ruled with Gutthika
align="center"|Gutthika - - 237 BC 215 BC *Defeated Suratissa in battle and ruled with Sena Chola

Anuradhapuran monarchs (215 BC–205 BC)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Asela - - 215 BC 205 BC *Youngest (ninth) brother of King Devanampiya Tissa
*Younger brother of King Suratissa
*Regained the Kingdom from the Sena Chola and Gutthika

Chola invasion (205 BC–161 BC)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Elara - - 205 BC 161 BC *Defeated Asela in battle

Sub Kingdoms (205 BC–161 BC)

Maya Rata

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Kelani Tissa - - 205 BC 161 BC
Ruhuna

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Kavan Tissa - - 205 BC 161 BC

Ruhuna monarchs (161 BC–103 BC)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center" align="center"|Dutugemunu
(aka Dutta Gamini or Gamini)
- - 161 BC 137 BC *Defeated Tamil Elara
*Eldest son of Kavan Tissa
*Originally the ruler of Ruhuna
align="center"|Saddha Tissa - - 137 BC 119 BC *Brother of Dutugemunu
align="center"|Thulatthana
(Tulna)
- - 119 BC 119 BC *Second son of Saddha Tissa
align="center"|Lanja Tissa - - 119 BC 109 BC *Older brother of Thullattana
*Oldest son of Saddha Tissa
align="center"|Khallata Naga
(Kalunna)
- - 109 BC 103 BC *Brother of Lajja Tissa
*Third son of Saddha Tissa
align="center"|Vattagamani Abhaya
(aka Valagambahu I)
(Walagamba)
- - 103 BC 103 BC *Fourth son of Saddha Tissa

The Pancha Dravida (the 'Five Dravidans') (104 BC–89 BC)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Pulahatta - - 103 BC 100 BC *Tamil Chief
align="center"|Bahiya - - 100 BC 98 BC *Chief Minister of Pulahatha
align="center"|Panya Mara - - 98 BC 91 BC *Prime Minister of Bahiya
align="center"|Pilaya Mara - - 91 BC 90 BC *Chief Minister of Panayamara
align="center"|Dathika - - 90 BC 89 BC *Chief Minister of Pilayamara

Anuradhapura monarchs (89 BC–66)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Vattagamani Abhaya
(aka Valagambahu I)
(Walagamba)
- - 89 BC 76 BC *Fourth son of Saddha Tissa
align="center"|Mahakuli Mahatissa
(Maha Cula Maha Tissa)
- - 76 BC 62 BC *Son of Khallatanaga
*Nephew and adopted son of Valagambahu I
align="center"|Chore Naga
(Mahanaga)
- - 62 BC 50 BC *Son of Valagambahu I
*Cousin of Mahakuli Mahatissa
align="center"|Kuda Tissa - - 50 BC 47 BC *Son of Mahakuli Mahatissa
align="center"|Siva I - - 47 BC 47 BC
align="center"|Vatuka - - 47 BC 47 BC
align="center"|Darubhatika Tissa - - 47 BC 47 BC
align="center"|Niliya - - 47 BC 47 BC
align="center"|Queen Anula - - 47 BC 42 BC *Widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa
align="center"|Kutakanna Tissa - - 42 BC 20 BC *Brother of Kuda Tissa
*Second son of Mahakuli Mahatissa
align="center"|Bhatikabhaya Abhaya - - 20 BC 9 AD *Son of Kuttakanna Tissa
align="center"|Mahadathika Mahanaga - - 9 21 *Brother of Bhatika Abhaya
align="center"|Amandagamani Abhaya - - 21 30 *Son of Mahadathika Mahanaga
align="center"|Kanirajanu Tissa - - 30 33 *Brother of Amandagamani Abhaya
align="center"|Chulabhaya - - 33 35 *Son of Amandagamani Abhaya
align="center"|Queen Sivali - - 35 35 *Sister of Chulabhaya
align="center"|Interregnum - - 35 38 *Nephew of Queen Sivali
align="center"|Ilanaga
(Elunna)
- - 38 44 *Nephew of Queen Sivali
align="center"|Chandamukha - - 44 52 *Son of Ilanaga
align="center"|Yassalalaka Tissa - - 52 60 *Younger brother of Candhamuka Siva
align="center"|Subharaja
(aka Subha)
- - 60 66 *The hall porter of King Yasalaka Tissa

Lambakanna monarchs (66–432)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Vasabha - - 66 110 *A member of the Lambakanna clan
align="center"|Vankanasika Tissa - - 110 113 *Son of Vasabha
align="center"|Gajabâhu I - - 113 135 *Son of Vankanasika Tissa
align="center"|Mahallaka Naga - - 135 141 *Father-in-Law of Gajabahu I
align="center"|Bhatika Tissa - - 141 165 *Son of Mahallaka Naga
align="center"|Kanittha Tissa - - 165 193 *Younger brother of Bhatika Tissa
align="center"|Cula Naga
(aka Khujjanaga)
- - 193 195 *Son of Kanitta Tissa
align="center"|Kuda Naga
(aka Kunchanaga)
- - 195 196 *Brother of Cula Naga
align="center"|Siri Naga I - - 196 215 *Brother-in-Law of Kuda Naga
align="center"|Voharika Tissa
(aka Vira Tissa & Voharikathissa)
- - 215 237 *Son of Siri Naga I
align="center"|Abhaya Naga - - 237 245 *Brother of Voharaka Tissa
align="center"|Siri Naga II - - 245 247 *Son of Voharaka Tissa
align="center"|Vijaya Kumara - - 247 248 *Son of Siri Naga II
align="center"|Sangha Tissa I - - 248 252 *A Lambakanna
align="center"|Siri Sangha Bodhi I
(aka Siri Sangabo)
- - 252 254 *A Lambakanna
align="center"|Gathabhaya - - 254 267 *Minister of State
*A Lambakanna
align="center"|Jettha Tissa I
(aka Detuthis I)
- - 267 277 *Eldest son of Gothabhaya
align="center"|Maha Sena - - 277 304 *Brother of Jettha Tissa
*Younger son of Gothabhaya
align="center"|Sirimeghavanna - - 304 332 *Son of Mahasena
align="center"|Jettha Tissa II - - 332 341 *Brother of Sirimeghavanna
align="center"|Buddhadasa - - 341 370 *Son of Jettha Tissa II
align="center"|Upatissa I - - 370 412 *Eldest son of Buddhadasa
align="center"|Mahanama - - 412 434 *Brother of Upatissa I
align="center"|Soththisena - - 434 434 *Mahanama’s son born to a Tamil mother
align="center"|Chattagahaka Jantu
(aka Chhattagahaka)
- - 434 435 *Husband of Sangha
*Daughter of Mahanama by his Sinhala Queen
align="center"|Mittasena - - 435 436 *A noted plunderer

Shad Dravida (The 'Six Dravidians') (436–463)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Pandu - - 436 441 *A Tamil invader
align="center"|Parindu - - 441 441 *Son of Pandu
align="center"|Khudda Parinda - - 441 447 *Younger brother of Pandu
align="center"|Tiritara - - 447 447 *Fourth Tamil ruler
align="center"|Dathiya - - 447 450 *Fifth Tamil ruler
align="center"|Pithiya - - 450 452 *Sixth Tamil ruler

Moriya monarchs (463–684)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Dhatusena - - 463 479 *Son of Sangha, the daughter of Mahanama
*Liberated Anuradhapura from 27 years of Pandyan (Tamil) Rule
align="center"|Kassapa I
(the Usurper)(of Sigiriya)
- - 479 497 *Son of King Dhatusena by a Pallava woman
align="center"|Moggallana I - - 497 515 *Son of Dhatusena
*Brother of Kasyapa
align="center"|Kumara Dhatusena - - 515 524 *Son of Mogallana
align="center"|Kittisena - - 524 524 *Son of Kumara Dhatusena
align="center"|Siva II - - 524 525 *Uncle of Kirti Sena
align="center"|Upatissa II - - 525 526 *Son-in-Law of Kumara Dhatusena
align="center"|Silakala Ambosamanera - - 526 539 *A prince of Lambakanna stock
align="center"|Dathappabhuti - - 539 535 *Second son of Silakala
align="center"|Moggallana II - - 535 555 *Eldest brother of Dathapatissa
align="center"|Kittisirimegha - - 555 573 *Son of Mogallana II
align="center"|Mahanaga - - 573 575 *Minister of War under King Dathapatissa
align="center"|Aggabodhi I - - 575 608 *Brother of Mahanaga
*Nephew and Sub-King of Mahanaga
align="center"|Aggabodhi II - - 608 618 *Nephew and son-in-law of Aggabodhi I
align="center"|Sangha Tissa II - - 618 618 *Brother and Sword-bearer of Aggabodhi II
align="center"|Moggallana III - - 618 623 *Commander-in-Chief during the reign of Aggabodhi II
align="center"|Silameghavanna - - 623 632 *King Mogallana’s Sword-bearer
align="center"|Aggabodhi III Sirisanghabodhi - - 632 632 *Son of Silimeghavanna
align="center"|Jettha Tissa III - - 632 633 *Son of King Sangha Tissa
align="center"|Aggabodhi III (restored) - - 633 643 *Son of Silimeghavanna
align="center"|Dathopa Tissa I Hatthadpatha - - 643 643 *General of Jettha Tissa (Dathasiva)
align="center"|Aggabodhi III (restored) - - 643 643 *Son of Silimeghavanna
align="center"|Dathopa Tissa I Hatthadpatha - - 643 650 *
align="center"|Kassapa II - - 650 659 *Brother of Agbo II
*Sub-King of Dathopa Tissa
align="center"|Dappula I - - 659 659 *Son in law of Silimeghavanna
align="center"|Dathopa Tissa II - 673 659 667 *Nephew of Dathopa Tissa I (Hattha Datha)
align="center"|Aggabodhi IV - - 667 683 *Younger brother of Dathopa Tissa
align="center"|Datta - - 683 684 *A chief of Royal blood who was placed on the throne by a wealthy Tamil Officer
align="center"|Hatthadpatha II - - 684 684 *A youth also placed on the throne by the Tamil Officer

Lambakanna monarchs (Pallava clients) (684–777)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Manavanna - - 684 718 *Son of Kassapa I
*Descendant of Silamegahavanna
align="center"|Aggabodhi V - - 718 724 *Son of Manavamma
align="center"|Kassapa III - - 724 730 *Brother of Aggabodhi V
align="center"|Mahinda I - - 730 733 *Younger brother of Kassapa III
align="center"|Aggabodhi VI - - 733 772 *Son of Kassapa III
align="center"|Aggabodhi VII - - 772 777 *Son of Mahinda

Kings of Rajarata from Anuradhapura and other capitals (777–c. 1007)

Lambakanna monarchs (777–c. 1007)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Mahinda II Silamegha - - 777 797 *Son of Aggabodhi VI
align="center"|Dappula II (or Udaya I) - - 797 801 *Son of Mahinda II
*The sub-king of Mahinda II
align="center"|Mahinda III - - 801 804 *Son of Dappula II
align="center"|Aggabodhi VIII - - 804 815 *Brother of Mahinda III
align="center"|Dappula III - - 815 831 *Younger brother of Aggabodhi VIII
align="center"|Aggabodhi IX - - 831 833 *Son of Dappula III
align="center"|Sena I - - 833 853 *Younger brother of Aggabodhi IX
align="center"|Sena II - - 853 887 *Nephew of Sena I
*Son of Kassapa
align="center"|Udaya I - - 887 898 *Brother of sub-king of Sena II
align="center"|Kassapa IV - - 898 914 *Son of Sena II
*Sub-king of Udaya I
align="center"|Kassapa V - - 914 923 *Son of Kassapa IV
align="center"|Dappula IV - - 923 924 *Son of Kassapa V
align="center"|Dappula V - - 924 935 *Brother of Dappula IV
align="center"|Udaya II - - 935 938 *Nephew of Sena II
*Sub-king of Dappula V
align="center"|Sena III - - 938 946 *Brother of Udaya II
align="center"|Udaya III - - 946 954 *Sub-king of Sena III (a great friend of the king)
align="center"|Sena IV - - 954 956 *Son of Kassapa V
*Sub-king of Udaya III
align="center"|Mahinda IV - - 956 972 *Brother of Sena IV
*Nephew of Udaya III
*Sub-king of Sena
align="center"|Sena V - - 972 982 *Son of Mahinda IV
align="center"|Mahinda V (Fled and ruled in Ruhuna) - 1037 982 993 *Younger brother of Sena V

Chola emperors (993–1054)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Rajaraja Chola I - - 993 1044
align="center"|Rajadiraja Chola I - - 1018 1054 *Chola (Tamil) Administration

Titular kings of Rajarata (c. 1029–c. 1055)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Vikramabahu
(aka Kassapa VI before coronation)
- - c.1029 c.1040 *Son of Mahinda
align="center"|Kirthi
(Minister)
- - c.1040 c.1040 *A nobleman of Ruhuna
align="center"|Mahalana Kirthi - - c.1040 c.1042 *A Chief
align="center"|Vikkama Pandya - - c.1042 c.1043 *A Sinhala Prince
align="center"|Jagathpala - - c.1043 c.1046 *A native of Ayodhya
align="center"|Pârakkama Pandya - - c.1046 c.1048
align="center"|Lokeshwara
(Minister)
- - c.1048 c.1054 *An inhabitant of Ruhuna
align="center"|Kassapa VII
(aka Keshadhathu Kassapa)
- - c.1054 c.1055 *A Chief

Kings of Rajarata from Polonnaruwa (1055–1236)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Vijayabâhu I - - 1055 1110 *Grandson of Vikrama Bahu
align="center"|Jayabâhu I - - 1110 1111 *Brother of Vijaya Bahu I
*Prime Minister of Vijaya Bahu
align="center"|Vikramabâhu I - 1131/32 1111 1132 *Son of Vijaya Bahu from a princess of Kalinga
align="center"|Gajabâhu II - - 1131 1153 *Son of Vikramabâhu I
align="center" align="center"|Parâkramabâhu I 'the Great' 1123 1186 1153 1186 *Grandson of Vijaya Bahu I
*Prince of Royal Blood
*Pandyan descent
*Son of Manabharana and Vijaya Bahu’s
align="center"|Vijayabâhu II - - 1186 1187 *Parakrama Bahu’s nephew (sisters son)
align="center"|Mahinda VI - - 1187 1187 *A Kalinga

Kalinga monarchs (1187–1212)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Nissanka Malla - - 1187 1196 *A Kalinga Prince
*Sub-king of Vijaya Bahu II
align="center"|Vira Bahu I - - 1196 1196 *Son of Nissanka Malla
align="center"|Vikramabâhu II - - 1196 1196 *Younger brother of Nissanka Malla
align="center"|Chodaganga - - 1196 1197 *Nephew of Nissanka Malla
align="center"|Queen Lilavati - - 1197 1200 *Widow of King Parakrama Bahu I
align="center"|Sahassamalla - - 1200 1202 *King Nissanka Malla’s younger brother
align="center"|Queen Kalyanavati - - 1202 1208 *Queen of late King Nissanka Malla
align="center"|Dharmashoka - - 1208 1209 *Infant King 3 months old was put to death by Anikanga
align="center"|Anikanga Mahadipada - - 1209 1209 *Governor of Maya Rata
align="center"|Queen Lilavati (restored) - - 1209 1210 *Widow of King Parakrama Bahu I
align="center"|Lokissara - - 1210 1211
align="center"|Queen Lilavati (restored) - - 1211 1212 *Widow of King Parakrama Bahu I

Pandya monarchs (1212–1215)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Parakrama Pandya - - 1212 1215 *South Indian Invader (Pandyan)

Kalinga monarchs (1215–1236)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Magha - - 1215 1236 *A prince of Kalinga

Kingdom of Dambadeniya (1220–1302)

from Dambadeniya (1220–1270)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Vijayabâhu III - - 1220 1234 *A patriotic Prince of Sinhala Royal blood
align="center"|Parâkkamabâhu II - - 1234 1267 *Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu III
align="center"|Vijayabâhu IV - - 1267 1270 *Eldest son of Panditha Parakrama Bahu II

from Yapahuwa (1272–1286)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Mitta - - 127 127 *A General of the Army
align="center"|Bhuvanaikabâhu I - - 1272 1285 *Brother of Vijaya Bahu IV
align="center"|Chandra Bhanu - - 1285 1285 *Son of the first ruler of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam)
align="center"|Interregnum - - 1285 1286

from Polonnaruwa (1287–1293)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Parâkkamabâhu III - - 1287 1293 *Nephew of Buvaneka Bahu I
*Son of Vijaya Bahu IV

from Kurunagala (1293–1302)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Bhuvanaikabâhu II - - 1293 1302 *Son of Buvaneka Bahu I
*Cousin of Parakrama Bahu III
align="center"|Parâkkamabâhu IV - - 1302 1326 *Son of Buvanekka Bahu II
align="center"|Bhuvanaikabahu III - - 1326 1335 *Known as Vanni Buvaneka Bahu
align="center"|Vijayabâhu V - - 1335 1341 *Second son of Chandra Banu of Jaffnapatnam
align="center"|Bhuvanaikabâhu IV - - 1341 1353 *Son of Vijaya Bahu V

Kingdom of Gampola (1344–1408)

from Dedigama(1344–1359)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Parâkkamabâhu V - - 1344 1359 *Brother of Buvaneka Bahu IV
*Son of Vijaya Bahu V

from Gampola (1357–1408)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Vikramabâhu III - - 1357 1374 *Son of Buvaneka Bahu IV
align="center"|Bhuvanaikabâhu V - - 1372 1408 *Nissanka Alakeswara’s son by the sister of Vikrama Bahu III

Kings of Raigama (1392–1423)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Veerabahu II - - 1392 1397 *Brother in law of King Buvaneka Bahu V
align="center"|Veeralankeshwara (Vijaya Bahu VI) - - 1397 1410
align="center"|Kahawelageshwara - - - -

Kingdom of Kotte and Sub Kingdoms(1412–1597)

Kings stated with an alternative city is a Sub Kingdom, otherwise is Kotte.

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Parakramabâhu VI - - 1412 1467 *Prince named Sepanana (Jayapala) descended from Parakrama Bahu
*The third son of Chandra Banu of Yapa Patuna (Jaffnapatnam)
align="center"|Jayabâhu II
(Vira Parakrama Bahu VII)
- - 1467 1470 *Son of Parakrama Bahu II’s natural daughter, Ulakudaya Devi
align="center"|Bhuvanaikabâhu VI
(aka Sapumal Kumara)
- - 1470 1480 *Son of Parakrama Bahu VI
align="center"|Parâkkamabâhu VII - - 1480 1484
align="center"|Parâkkamabâhu VIII - - 1484 1489 *Ambulagala Kumara
*Son of Parakrama Bahu VI
align="center"|Dharma Parãkramabãhu IX
(of Kelaniya)
- - 1508/09 1528 *Son of Vira Parakrama Bahu VIII
align="center"|Vijaya Bahu VII - 1521 1509 1521 *Brother of Dharma Parakrama Bahu IX
*Rajah of Menik Kadavara
align="center"|Bhuvanekabãhu VII - 1551 1521 1551 *Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu
align="center"|Vidiyë Bandãra
(Regent)
- - 1521 1555 *Son of Bhuvanekabãhu VII
align="center"|Dharmapala
(aka Dom Joaõ Dharmapala)
- May 27 1597 1551 May 27 1597 *Son of Vidiyë Bandãra
*Grandson and heir of Bhuvanekabãhu VII

Kingdom of Sitawaka (1521–1594)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Mayadunne - 1581 1521 1581 *Brother of Bhuvaneka Bahu VII
*Son of Vijaya Bahu VII
align="center"|Rajasimha I
(aka Tikiri Banda)
- 1593 1581 1593 *Son of Mayadunne
align="center"|Jayaweera Bandãra
(baptised as Dom Manoel)
- - - - *Treasurer of Rajasinghe I
align="center"|Rajasurya - - 1593 1594

Kingdom of Kandy (1590–1815)

Konnapu Bandara Dynasty (1591–1739)

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center" align="center"|Vimaladharmasuriya I
(aka Don João da Austria)
- - 1592 1604 *Son of Vijayasundara Bandara
align="center"|Senarat - - 1604 1635 *Cousin of Vimala Dharma Suriya I
align="center" align="center"|Rajasinghe II - November 25 1687 1635 November 25 1687 *Son of Dona Catherina and Senarat
align="center"|Vimaladharmasurya II - June 4 1707 1687 June 4 1707 *Son of King Rajasinghe II
align="center"|Vira Narendra Sinha
(aka Sri Vira Parakrama Narendra Singha)
- 13 May 1739 June 4 1707 13 May 1739 *Son of Vimala Dharma Suriya II

Kandy Nayakar Dynasty (1739–1815)

(a.k.a Madurai Nayak Dynasty)''

Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center"|Vijaya Rajasinha
(aka Rajasimha III,
Sri Vijaya Raja Singha)
- August 11 1747 May 13 1739 August 11 1747 *Brother-in-law of Narendra Singha
align="center"|Kirtisri
(aka Kirti Sri Raja Singha)
- January 2 1782 August 11 1747 January 2 1782 *Sri Vijaya Raja Singha’s wife’s eldest brother from Madura
align="center"|Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha - July 26 1798 January 2 1782 July 26 1798 *Brother of Kirthi Sri Raja Singha
align="center" align="center"|Sri Vikrama Rajasinha
(aka Rajasimha IV)
1780 Jan 30, 1832 July 26 1798 5 March 1815 *Nephew of Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha

Portuguese Colonial rule (1580–1658)

The Portugal Colonial rule of Ceylon lasted from 1580 to 1658, during which the Portuguese ruled several parts of the costal areas of the island.

Kings of Portugal (1580–1658)

Portuguese House of Habsburg (Philippine Dynasty)
Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center" align="center"|Philip I
(aka Filipe I (in Portugal)
Felipe II (in Spain)
21 May, 1527 13 September, 1598 1580 13 September,1598 *Grandson of Manuel I
*Nephew and son-in-law of John III
align="center" align="center"|Philip II
(aka Filipe II (in Portugal)
Felipe III (in Spain)
14 April, 1578 31 March, 1621 14 April, 1598 31 March, 1621 *Son of Philip I
align="center" align="center"|Philip III
(aka Filipe III (in Portugal)
Felipe IV (in Spain)
8 April, 1605 17 September, 1665 31 March, 1621 17 September, 1665 *Son of Philip II
House of Braganza (Brigantine Dynasty)
Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center" align="center"|John IV
(aka Filipe I (in Portugal)
Felipe II (in Spain))
18 March, 1603 6 November, 1656 1 December, 1640 6 November, 1656 *Great-great-grandson of Manuel I
align="center" align="center"|Afonso VI
(aka Afonso VI (Portuguese),
Alphonse VI (English),
Affonso VI (Old Portuguese)
21 August, 1643 12 September, 1683 6 November, 1656 1658 *Son of John IV

General Captains

  • Pedro Lopos de Sousa 1594
  • D. Jeronimo de Azevedo 1594-1613
  • D. Francisco de Meneses 1613-1614
  • Manuel Mascarenhas Homem 1614-1616
  • Nuno Alvares Pereira 1616-1618
  • Constantino de Sa e Noronha 1618-1622
  • Philippe III 1621-1640
  • Jorge do Albuquerque 1622-1623
  • Constantino de Sa e Noronha 1623-1630
  • D. Philippe Mascarenhas 1630-1631
  • D. Jorge de Almeida 1631-1633
  • Diego de Mello de Castro 1633-1635
  • D. Jorge de Almeida 1635-1636
  • Diogo de Mello de Castro 1636-1638
  • D. Antonio Mascarenhas 1638-1640
  • John IV of Braganza 1640-1645
  • D. Philippe Mascarenhas 1640-1645
  • Manuel Mascarenhas Homem 1645-1653
  • Francisco de Mello de Castro 1653-1655
  • Antonio de Sousa Coutinho 1655-1656
  • Antonio de Amaral de Menezes 1656-1658, Jaffna

Dutch Colonial rule

The Dutch Colonial rule of Ceylon lasted from 1640 to 1796. This began with the capture of Portuguese areas, during the Dutch rule the enter coast of the Island was occupied by the Dutch, leaving only the Kingdom of Kandy.

Dutch governors of Zeylan (1640–1796)

British Colonial rule

British Monarchs (1796–1948)

In 1796 British gained control of the coastal areas from the Dutch and in 1815 the entire island. The Kandyan Convention of 1815 recognized the King of England as the King of Kandy, hence the British Monarchs from 1796 to 1948 was the Monarchs of Ceylon.House of Hanover
Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center" align="center"|George III 04 June, 1738 29 January, 1820 1796 29 January, 1820 *Son of Frederick, Prince of Wales
and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
align="center" align="center"|George IV 12 August, 1762 26 June, 1830 29 January, 1820 26 June, 1830 *Son of George III
align="center" align="center"|William IV 21 August, 1765 20 June, 1837 26 June, 1830 20 June. 1837 *Son of George III
align="center" align="center"|Victoria 24 May, 1819 22 January, 1901 20 June, 1837 22 January, 1901 *Daughter of Prince Edward Augustus,
Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center" align="center"|Edward VII 9 November, 1841 6 May, 1910 22 January, 1901 6 May, 1910 *Son of Victoria
House of Windsor
Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center" align="center"|George V 3 June, 1865 20 January, 1936 6 May, 1910 20 January, 1936 *Son of Edward VII
align="center" align="center"|Edward VIII 23 June, 1894 28 May, 1972 20 January, 1936 11 December, 1936 *Son of George V
align="center" align="center"|George VI 14 December, 1895 6 February, 1952 11 December, 1936 6 February, 1948 *Son of George V

British Governors of Ceylon (1796–1948)

Between 1796 and 1948, Ceylon was a British crown colony. Although the British monarch was the head of state, in practice his or her functions were exercised in the colony by the colonial Governor, who acted on instructions from the British government in London.

Post independence Heads of State (1948- )

Monarch of Ceylon

House of Windsor
Portrait Name Birth Death King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
align="center" align="center"|George VI 14 December, 1895 6 February, 1952 4 February, 1948 6 February, 1952 *Son of George V
align="center" align="center"|Elizabeth II 21 April, 1926 6 February, 1952 May 22, 1972 *Daughter of George VI

Governor-Generals of Ceylon (1948–1972)

In 1948, Sri Lanka achieved independence from the United Kingdom as a Dominon within the Commonwealth, and the British monarch remained the head of state. The Governor was replaced with a Governor-General, responsible not to London, but the local parliament.

Prime Ministers of Ceylon and Sri Lanka (1948 - 1978)

The post of Prime Minister of Ceylon was created in 1947 prior to independence from Britain and the formation of the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. In 1972 when Sri Lanka became a republic the name of the post changed to Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. With a Westminster-based political system establish the Prime Minister was the head of government therefore the most powerful political office of the country at the time. This changed in 1978, with constitutional change, when the Executive Presidency was created making the President both head of state and head of government. Until 1978 the Prime minister was also the Minister of Defence and External Affairs.

Presidents of Sri Lanka (1978—)

The 1978 constitution moved from a Westminster-based political system into one modeled on France.The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, head of the Cabinet, appoints the prime minister, and could dissolve parliament (after one year has passed since the convening of parliament after a parliamentary election).

References

External links

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