Definitions

Jansen

Jansen

[jan-suhn; Du. yahn-suhn]
Jansen, Cornelis, 1585-1638, Dutch Roman Catholic theologian. He studied at the Univ. of Louvain and became imbued with the idea of reforming Christian life along the lines of a return to St. Augustine. He established a close friendship with Duvergier de Hauranne, a fellow student, with whom he shared and developed many of his theological ideas. In 1630, Jansen became professor at Louvain, and in 1636 bishop of Ypres. Out of his lifework, the posthumous Augustinus (1642, in Latin), arose the great movement called Jansenism.

Jansenism

Jansenism was strictly a Roman Catholic movement, and it had no repercussions in the Protestant world. Its fundamental purpose was a return of people to greater personal holiness, hence the characteristically mystical turn of Jansenist writings. St. Augustine's teaching on grace was especially appealing to Jansen, who stressed the doctrine that the soul must be converted to God by the action of divine grace, without which conversion could not begin. Predestination was accepted in an extreme form and was so essential to Jansenism that its adherents were even referred to as Calvinists by their opponents. But Jansenism had no appeal to Protestants, for it held the necessity of the Roman Catholic Church for salvation and opposed justification by faith alone.

Jansenism, however, came into conflict with the church for its predestinarianism, for its discouragement of frequent communion for the faithful, and for its attack on the Jesuits and the new casuistry, which the Jansenists thought was demoralizing the confessional. Jansenism took root in France, especially among the clergy. There it early became involved with Gallicanism, and high officials of church and state often sided with Jansenists to thwart the Holy See.

The second great Jansenist work was De la fréquente communion (1643) of Antoine Arnauld, which stirred the opposition of Jesuits and Dominicans. In 1653, Pope Innocent X condemned five of Jansen's doctrines, and in 1656 Arnauld was expelled from the Sorbonne. Meanwhile, Blaise Pascal, the greatest Jansenist, aroused a storm by his anti-Jesuit Provincial Letters, and there was persecution of the Jansenists for a while. Pasquier Quesnel published late in the 17th cent. a vernacular New Testament with Jansenist notes, which was condemned by Pope Clement XI. The aged Louis XIV undertook to suppress Jansenism, and the bulls Vineam Domini (1705) and Unigenitus (1713) virtually put the Jansenists out of the church. (Gallicanism, however, prevented the legal registration of Unigenitus in France until 1730.)

The convent of Port-Royal, the greatest center of Jansenism, was closed, and most Jansenists fled France. Jansenism survived as a tendency within the church, especially in France, taking the form usually of extreme scruples with regard to communion. In the Netherlands an organization not in submission to the pope was set up. There are Jansenist bishops of Utrecht, Haarlem, and Deventer. The independent Jansenists recognize the Council of Trent and are, except for their special differences, like Roman Catholics. The first Old Catholic bishop was consecrated by Jansenists (see Old Catholics).

Bibliography

See N. Abercrombie, The Origins of Jansenism (1936); M. Escholier, Port-Royal: The Drama of the Jansenists (tr. 1968).

Jansen is a village in Jefferson County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 143 at the 2000 census. The village was named after local rancher and politician Peter Jansen.

Geography

Jansen is located at (40.185711, -97.082704).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.2 square miles (0.6 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 143 people, 65 households, and 38 families residing in the village. The population density was 642.6 people per square mile (251.0/km²). There were 72 housing units at an average density of 323.5/sq mi (126.4/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.70% of the population.

There were 65 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 6.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.5% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 26.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the village the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 14.7% from 45 to 64, and 26.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 104.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $28,906, and the median income for a family was $28,906. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $22,500 for females. The per capita income for the village was $12,091. There were 4.9% of families and 7.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including 2.2% of under eighteens and 18.4% of those over 64.

References

External links

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